HISPID3

Herbarium Information Standards and Protocols for Interchange of Data

Version 3

Editor
Barry J. Conn


Internet URL
http://www.rbgsyd.gov.au/HISCOM

© Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria

Previous Versions of HISPID

Version 1:

Croft, J.R. (ed.) (1989). HISPID - Herbarium Information Standards and Protocols for Interchange of Data (Australian National Botanic Gardens: Canberra).

Version 2:

Whalen, A. (ed.) (1993). HISPID - Herbarium Information Standards and Protocols for Interchange of Data (National Herbarium of New South Wales: Sydney).


  • As with all previous versions of HISPID, the preparation of the HISPID3 interchange standard is being coordinated by a committee of representatives from all major Australian herbaria. Since 1995, the development of this standard has been coordinated by the 'Herbarium Information Systems Committee' (HISCOM) (refer Internet URL http://www.rbgsyd.gov.au/HISCOM).
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    INTRODUCTION 5 RECORD IDENTIFICATION GROUP 29
    Format of HISPID3 5 'Full' Scientific Name 29
    Definitions 6 'Limited' Scientific Name 29
    Italics 6 Hybrids, Intergrades 29
    Nulls 7 Vernacular Names 30
    Single character fields 7 Higher Group Names 30
    Codes 7 Plant Name Authorities 30
    Relevant Standards 7 Other Comments 30
    Summary of the important features of a HISPID3 file 8 HYBRIDS, GRAFTS, CHIMAERA AND INTERGRADES 32
    Example of the start and end of a HISPID3 file 8 CULTIVATED PLANT NAMES 45
    An example of a filled HISPID3 interchange file 9 TYPIFICATION GROUP  50
    FORMAT OF THE TEXT IN THIS DESCRIPTION OF A HISPID3 FILE 11 VERIFICATION GROUP 55
    The full field name 11 Identification Qualifiers 55
    The transfer identifier code 11 LOCATION GROUP 63
    TDWG Short name 11 Subsequent Location Fields 63
    The field description 11 Geocode Information 63
    Relevant standards 11 Spatial Data Interchange 64
    Domain/Range/Values 11 HABITAT GROUP 79
    Comments 11 COLLECTION GROUP 85
    Rules 11 Subsequent Collection Fields 85
    Notes 11 KIND OF COLLECTION, ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS and VOUCHER COLLECTIONS 93
    FILE IDENTIFICATION FIELDS 13 ADDITIONAL DATA GROUP 103
    FILE IDENTIFIER GROUP 13 LOAN GROUP 111
    ACCESSION INFORMATION Fields 21 DATA ENTRY AND EDIT GROUP 117
    ACCESSION IDENTIFIER GROUP 21 INDEX 121
    BASIS OF RECORD GROUP 25

    INTRODUCTION

    The 'Herbarium Information Standards and Protocols for Interchange of Data' (HISPID) is a standard format for the interchange of electronic herbarium specimen information. HISPID has been developed by a committee of representatives from all major Australian herbaria. This interchange standard was first published in 1989, with a revised version published in 1993.

    HISPID3 is an accession-based interchange standard. Although many fields refer to attributes of the taxon they should be construed as applying to the specimen represented by the record, not to the taxon per se. The interchange of taxonomic, nomenclatural, bibliographic, typification, rare and endangered plant conservation, and other related information is not dealt with in this standard, unless it specifically refers to a particular accession (record).

    This data dictionary is concerned primarily with data interchange standards but has considerable relevance to database structure since the task of preparing interchange files is simplified if the data fields of the despatching and receiving databases match, as far as possible, the interchange standard. If differences do exist then, generally, it is easier to combine data fields than it is to dissect them in a reliable manner. Fields that are concatenated are frequently heterogeneous in their nature and many preclude the possibility of rearranging the data contained within such fields.

    The fields discussed in this data dictionary cover most of the herbarium and botanic gardens sphere of activity and have been arranged in groups of similar types of information. In many cases these groups may coincide with separate well­defined tables (or databases) of structurally similar records.

    The challenge for herbarium data managers is to decide whether the data are to be efficiently exchanged as discrete but related tables (databases) or as a larger single flat file that may have to be appropriately dismembered by the receiving institution. Some database packages are able to stack multiple values in a single field. This useful data structure complicates the interchange format and will not be used at this stage.

    Format of HISPID3

    The 'Herbarium Information Systems Committee' (HISCOM) considered several format options for HISPID3. It was agreed that the interchange format of HISPID3 would be a flat­file. This flat­file format was chosen because it was relatively simple and required minimal computer programming to enable the importing and exporting of data. Furthermore, this format was in agreement with that chosen for the 'International Transfer Format for Botanic Garden Plant Records (Version 2.00)(ITF2). Although, it was recognised that it was difficult to transfer relational (hierarchical) data in flat­file formats, it was decided to proceed with the publication of this version of HISPID so that electronic data interchange could be actively encouraged. It is hoped that future versions of HISPID will include the capability of transferring data such that the relational structure is maintained.

    There have been several major changes incorporated into this version of the HISPID transfer format, namely:

    (1) HISPID3 allows for the interchange of variable length fields. It is no longer restricted to a fixed length format.

    (2) HISPID3 allows missing data to be omitted from the transfer file

    (3) HISPID3 provides a protocol for interchanging (non-standard) data that are either not defined within this document or are in a form different to that define here.

    (4) Apart from a few exceptions, HISPID3 does not evaluate the relevance of interchanging any of the specific fields described in this document

    (5) The references to how data are stored in the major Australian herbarium databases has been deleted from this document

    (6) HISPID3 has been developed in conjunction with ITF2 (International Transfer Format for Botanic Gardens Plant Records version 2.00) so that the two interchange standards are as compatible as possible.

    The transfer format of HISPID3 is based on 'Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) '. International Standard ISO/IEC 8824, 2nd ed. (1990)(ISO/IEC: Genève).

    Definitions

    As far as practicable, raw data should be used. Interpretations or corrections in free text fields should be enclosed in square brackets: '[' and ']'. Omitted data should be represented by the ellipsis: '...'.

    Italics:

    Since the printable ASCII (EBDIC or UNICODE) character set does not include italicised characters, these are not included in the interchange file.

    Nulls:

    If information is not known for a field, then the field need not be included in the interchange file or else the field identifier may be interchanged unfilled. However, if the value of the Collector's Identifier field is unknown, then the default value should be 's.n.'.

    Single character fields:

    In general, single character (flag) fields have not been included in this standard because of the difficulty of detecting data entry errors.

    Codes:

    As for the 'single character' fields (above), codes are mostly not included in this standard because of the difficulty of detecting data entry errors.

    Relevant Standards

    The fields included in this interchange standard are a compilation from the following sources:

    ABIS Australian Biotaxonomic/Biogeographic Information System

    (Australian Biological Resources Study ­ ABRS)

    ICBN International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

    (International Association of Plant Taxonomists ­ IAPT)

    ITF International Transfer Format for Botanic Gardens Plant Records

    ITFBGPR (Botanic Gardens Conservation International ­ BGCI)

    ITRF International Earth Rotation Service Terrestrial Reference Frame

    MFN Minimal Functional Nomenclator, also known as:

    DSTI Database Standards for Taxonomic Information

    (Taxonomic Database Working Group ­ TDWG)

    PECS Plant Existence and Categorisation Scheme, also known as:

    POSS Plant Occurrence and Status Scheme

    (World Conservation Monitoring Centre ­ WCMC Threatened Plants Unit - TPU)

    SDTS Spatial Data Transfer Standard

    TDWG Taxonomic Database Working Group

    TLR Type and Lectotypification Registers

    (Taxonomic Database Working Group ­ TDWG)

    WGSUB World Geographical System for Use in Botany

    (Taxonomic Database Working Group ­ TDWG)

    XDF Language for the Definition and Exchange of Biological Data Sets

    (Taxonomic Database Working Group ­ TDWG)

    Summary of the important features of a HISPID3 file:

    a) Each field is prefaced by an unique identifier this refers to the fields which describe the contents of the file, as well as to those which describe the information contained in each record);

    b) Each unique identifier must begin with a lowercase letter (a-z) and cannot contain any spaces;

    c) A transfer file begins with the file identifier 'startfile';

    1. Each record begins with the opened brace character '{';
    2. Each record ends with the closed brace character '}';

    f) Variable length fields are allowed;

    g) Fields can be omitted from the transfer file if there is no information available for that field;

    h) Alphanumeric data are enclosed by double quotation marks (");

    i) Numeric data are not enclosed by double quotation marks;

    j) Each field and each file information is one line long and is terminated by a comma (,);

    k) Each transfer file ends with the file identifier 'endfile'.

    Example of the start and end of a HISPID3 file:

    startfile
    version HISPID version
    numrecords number of records in this file
    datefile date to which the file refers
    institute full name of institution supplying information
    contact contact name
    address postal address
    phone telephone number
    fax fax number
    email email address
    nonstandard optional field to describe any non-standard fields added to the HISPID3 transfer file
    fileaction descriptor flag indicating how records of file should be processed
    filedescriptor descriptor flag indicating the nature of the records included in file
    content contents of the file and other comments
    { start of a record
    insid the standard 'Index Herbariorum' code for the herbarium to which the plant record refers
    accid accession number
    ...
    ...
    |
    |
    ...
    } end of record
    { start of next record
    insid
    accid
    ...
    |
    |
    ...
    } end of next record
    endfile end of file

    An example of a filled HISPID3 interchange file

    startfile
    version "HISPID3",
    numrec 2,
    datefile 19951202,
    institute "National Herbarium of New South Wales (NSW)",
    contact "Gary Chapple",
    address "Royal Botanic Gardens, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia",
    phone 612 92318164,
    fax 612 92517231,
    email "gary@rbgsyd.gov.au",
    fileaction "insert",
    filedescriptor "exchange",
    content "Herbarium exchange data of various species from NSW to CANB",
    {
    insid "NSW",
    accid "390839",
    fam "Loranthaceae",
    gen "Amyema",
    sp "pendulum",
    isprk "subsp.",
    isp "longifolium",
    vnam "Wiecek, B.M.",
    vdat 1995,
    prot "Wild",
    cou "AUSTRALIA",
    pru "NSW",
    sru "Central W. Slopes",
    loc "Mount Bolton, Moura",
    latdeg 33,
    latmin 15,
    latdir "S",
    londeg 148,
    lonmin 24,
    londir "E",
    cnam "Baeuerlen, W.",
    cdat 190103,
    hab "On Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha.",
    misc "Donated by Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences, 1979.",
    }
    {
    insid "NSW",
    accid "248836",
    fam "Asclepiadaceae",
    gen "Cynanchum",
    sp "pedunculatum",
    vnam "Hill, K.D.",
    vdat 1992,
    prot "Wild",
    cou "AUSTRALIA",
    pru "WA",
    sru "Fortescue",
    loc "Mount Lois.",
    alt 800,
    latdeg 22,
    latmin 06,
    latdir "S",
    londeg 117,
    lonmin 44,
    londir "E",
    geoacy 0.05,
    hab "Summit of mountain. Red loam derived from iron-rich shale.",
    cnam "Wilson, Peter G.",
    cid "1031",
    cnam2 "Rowe, R.",
    cdat 19910911,
    cnot "Rare. Scrambler. Flowers white; fruit green.",
    }
    endfile

    FORMAT OF THE TEXT IN THIS DESCRIPTION OF A HISPID3 FILE

    The herbarium data fields for information interchange are listed below in the following format:

    The full field name:

    The name of the discrete piece of information within the file or within each record.

    The transfer identifier code:

    The standard codes used as file or field identifiers in the transfer file.

    TDWG Short name:

    A short, meaningful­sounding single­word name for the field, proposed by TDWG.

    The field description:

    A general elaboration of the field name.

    Relevant standards:

    The existence of this type of data in any other published or proposed biological standards.

    Domain/Range/Values:

    The type of data allowed in this field, the range of values, or individual allowable values, and capitalisation.

    Comments:

    Any other remarks on the use or application of these data and its relationships to other data. Any conflicts or problems in the application of these data types.

    Rules:

    Additional information to that provided in Comments explaining the rules applying to these data.

    Notes:

    Additional comments to those provided in Comments and Rules.

    FILE IDENTIFICATION FIELDS

    FILE IDENTIFIER GROUP:

    This group of fields provides information about the file. These fields are required so that the receiving institution knows what to do with the incoming data.




    Start of HISPID3 File

    Transfer code: startfile

    Description: The beginning of the transfer file has the file identifier 'startfile' only.

    Domain/Range/Values: This field has the value 'startfile' only (all in lowercase).


    End of HISPID3 File

    Transfer code: endfile

    Description: The end of the transfer file has the file identifier 'endfile' only.

    Domain/Range/Values: This field has the value 'endfile' only (all in lowercase).

    Comments: To be found at the very end of a HISPID3 file indicating the end of file. The description of this file identifier has been included here so that it can be considered together with the 'startfile' identifier.


    Version of File

    Transfer code: version

    Description: The HISPID Version used in the current HISPID transfer file.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; the version number prefaced by the acronym 'HISPID' (all in uppercase).

    Comments: Although it is expected that the latest version of HISPID will normally be used for the transfer format, the format of earlier versions are allowable. The 'HISPID Version August 1993' should be referred to as HISPID2 and the original version of HISPID (1989) as HISPID1. This current version should be referred to as HISPID3.


    Number of Records in File

    Transfer code: numrecords

    Description: The total number of records expressed as an integer.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer only.


    Date of File

    Transfer code: datefile

    Description: The date of compilation of the current HISPID file.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; year (4 digits) followed by month (2 digits) and then day (2 digits), without spaces between each. That is, YYYYMMDD. For example, the 6th July 1987 would be transferred in the form 19870706 (refer Collection Date for further details).

    Comments: This date format consists of year month day in that order.


    Name of Institution Supplying Information

    Transfer code: institute

    Description: The name in full of the institution sending the current HISPID file.


    Contact Name

    Transfer code: contact

    Description: The full name of the contact person within the institution.


    Address of Institution Sending File

    Transfer code: address

    Description: The full postal address of the sending institution.

    Comments: The address should be displayed as continuous text, no line breaks, only commas and spaces as required.


    Telephone Number of Institution

    Transfer code: phone

    Description: The telephone number of the Contact Person.

    Comments: The use of national and international codes depends on the circumstances of the sending and receiving institutions.


    Facsimile Number of Institution

    Transfer code: fax

    Description: The facsimile number of the Contact person.

    Comments: The use of national and international codes depends on the circumstances of the sending and receiving institutions.


    Email Address of Institution

    Transfer code: email

    Description: The email address of the Contact person.


    Non-Standard Option

    Transfer code: nonstandard

    Description: This field allows for the inclusion of data or standards that have not been included in this publication. The data is likely to be of particular interest to the sending and receiving institutions, who wish to use a HISPID type format for data fields which have not been described in this standard.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; the field identifier 'nonstandard' is followed by a suggested unique field identifier (all lowercase (a-z) or at least first letter lowercase) to be used in the transfer file; which is followed by a brief explanation (if necessary); the syntax of the data (whether alphanumeric or numeric); and the reference to the standard used in this new field (if necessary)(all enclosed by round brackets and, within, each separated by a semicolon and space)(refer example below).

    If the data for any one standard are being transferred in several fields, then each unique field identifier is separated by a space followed by the necessary explanatory information in round brackets.

    If more than one non-standard HISPID field (based on different standards) is being used in the transfer file then each must be separated by a semicolon and space (; )(refer example, below).

    Since this field is alphanumeric (text), the data must be enclosed by double quotations ("); all data must be on one line; and the field must end with a comma (,).

    Note: Since conformity with the HISPID standard is an agreed (essential) requirement for institutions interchanging data according to HISPID3 format, institutions are strongly urged to modify their interchange data so that they conform with one or more of the current HISPID3 fields. However, when circumstances preclude this, the Non-Standard Option may be used to interchange such data. If an institution wishes to interchange non-standard data, then they are requested to notify the HISPID coordinator (editor) so that these additional fields can be considered for inclusion in future versions of HISPID.

    In the following example, the 'nonstandard' information is presented on more than one line for readability.

    Example 1:

    nonstandard "pol (Pollinator; alphanumeric - scientific name of pollinator and authority at lowest level name or epithet); arch (Plant architectural models; alphanumeric; F. Hallé et al. 1978. 'Tropical trees and forests', Springer-Verlag: Berlin)",

    Example 2:

    If an institution is unable to provide information in the format of any particular HISPID3 field, as here defined, because they combine two or more of these fields together in such a way that the data are unable to be separated, then the Non-Standard option can be used.

    For example, if an institution combines the Substrate and Soil Type fields together, and the Vegetation and Associated Species Fields together, in such a way that they are unable to separate these elements into separate fields, then a new 'Transfer code' for each pair of information can be formed, with the 'Transfer codes' of the segregate fields cited in round brackets, and each of these Transfer codes separated by a comma. It is then understood that the Domain/Range/Values and other Comments of each still applies.

    nonstandard "subsoil (sub, soil); vegass (veg, asspp)",

    subsoil is the nonstandard identifier for the combined Substrate and Soil Type fields;

    vegass is the nonstandard identifier for the combined Vegetation and Associated Species fields.

    Comments: The non-standard fields would have to be programmed into the receiving database, as well as into the HISPID insert program.


    File Action Flag

    Transfer code: fileaction

    Description: A field to indicate how the records of the file should be processed.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphabetic; this field must consist of one of the values in the table below:

    Values in Field Meaning
    delete delete all records in file from institutional database receiving transfer file
    insert all records in file to be added to receiving database
    update update relevant fields of all records in file in receiving database

    Comments: This field should be used in conjunction with the Description of File Contents and Other Comments field (refer below). The 'delete' option is used when previously received collections are know to be sufficiently inaccurate that it is recommended that the specimen be removed from the herbarium. The reason for this would be explained in the Description of File Contents and Other Comments field (refer below).

    The 'insert' option is used for new records being sent to the receiving database. This is the default value for all exchange data.

    The 'update' option is used for records already held in the receiving database which have been modified and included in the current transfer file. This option would be used for returning redeterminations and other corrections to the receiving institutions.


    File Descriptor Flag

    Transfer code: filedescriptor

    Description: A field to indicate the nature of the records contained in the file.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphabetic; this field must consist of one of the values in the table below:

    Values in Field Meaning
    exchange records in file to be added to receiving database as part of exchange of herbarium material
    loan electronic herbarium data associated with loan of herbarium material
    repatriation repatriation of electronic data (from duplicate material held at sending institution to receiving institution) to the database held at the latter institution.

    Comments: These key values may be used to automatically implement the procedures to be followed by the receiving institution. This field should be used in conjunction with the Description of File Contents and Other Comments field (refer below).


    Description of File Contents and Other Comments

    Transfer code: content

    Description: A brief description of the content of the current HISPID file.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text.

    Example 1: Description of records being transferred as part of an herbarium loan:

    content "Herbarium loan 96/014, Myrtaceae data, from NSW to MO",

    Example 2: Description of transfer file containing corrections to the plant name (Record Identification Group of fields):

    content "Redeterminations and other corrections to the plant name fields, from BRI to LAE",

    Comments: This field may be used in conjunction with the File Descriptor Flag (above).


    Data Set URL

    Transfer code: daturl

    Description: The internet URL (Universal Resource Locator) where the records in this file can be found.

    Relevant standards: Internet URL, RFC 1738 (refer URL http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/Addressing/rfc1738.txt or URL http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/Addressing/URL/Overview.html)

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; any valid internet URL.

    Comments: This information can refer to either a fixed export file, to an on-line query, or can link to a specimen database gateway.


    ACCESSION INFORMATION Fields

    ACCESSION IDENTIFIER GROUP:

    This group of fields identifies the data records of the transfer file, that is, it describes the accession-based (specimen-based) information being interchanged. It is essential that these fields match exactly for the various exchange options to work effectively.

    The fields in this group include the Institution Code and Accession Identifier, as well as the Record defining field identifiers.


    Start of HISPID3 Record

    Transfer code: {

    Description: The single character } indicating the end of a HISPID3 Record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Must contain the symbol '}' only.

    Comments: To be found at the end of each HISPID3 record indicating the end of the data of a record, prior to beginning the next record or the endfile identifier if it is the last record in the transfer file.


    Institution Code

    Transfer code: insid

    TDWG Short name: HERBARIUM

    Description: The standard code for the Institution to which the plant record refers.

    Relevant standards: Index Herbariorum, International Directory for Botanic Gardens, ABIS, ITF, TLR

    Domain/Range/Values: The code must consist of an entry of 1­7 uppercase letters (A­Z), no embedded spaces. This field must be filled.

    Comments: When inserting the accession information into a receiving database, the Institution Code combines with the Accession Identifier to make up the unique Donor's accession identifier for each record.

    It is perhaps not necessary to include this field in a 'home' database since it may be appended to the record as the interchange file is generated. However, it will be necessary if the herbarium chooses to keep records of other institutions' collections of particular groups (for research purposes for example).

    A problem with this field may arise with herbaria associated with botanic gardens; it is desirable that the herbaria and botanic gardens have the same abbreviation. If the record is primarily referring to an herbarium voucher, then the herbarium code should always be used in the transfer file. The distinction between herbarium and living material can be handled by various flags in the Collection group.

    If an institution's herbarium does not have an official code, then a temporary one should be assigned. However, it is essential that the institution receiving the transfer file is aware of the code being used. This information should be included in the Description of File Contents and other Comments field (refer above).


    Accession Identifier

    Transfer code: accid

    TDWG Short name: UNIQUEID, ACCESSIONID

    Description: The unique identifier of the record, often called 'Accession Number', used internally by the institution to record each accession.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, TLR

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; the Accession Identifier field may consist of any characters in the ASCII character set, no embedded spaces.

    1. The Accession Identifier should be a unique set of characters that identifies each accession in the institution's own record system.

    2. The same value of the Accession Identifier should not be used again for a separate, unrelated specimen in that institution.

    Comments: Institutions differ widely in the way they accession and record herbarium specimens with one result that numbering systems (sometimes multiple) have been applied in fundamentally different ways. In some institutions this number refers to a unique specimen accession number, in others the specimen parts are accessioned individually and each part (eg. multiple sheets) has its own accession number, but supplementary material such as spirit and fruit may carry the number of the first sheet. The application of different specimen/accession number systems is a source of potential confusion where the specimen number and accession number may or may not be the same thing. However, only the Accession Identifier is used in HISPID3. This single number will either identify the single herbarium material or the group of material (when several identifiers are used for different elements of an accession).

    Unlike herbaria, many botanic gardens include punctuation within their Accession Identifier, eg. 82­BG­24­31. It is vital for an institution to be consistent on whether the punctuation is included in the HISPID3 transfer format.


    BASIS OF RECORD GROUP

    This group consists of a single field which indicates the basis of the record being interchanged.


    Source of Record Flag

    Transfer code: recsou

    TDWG Short name: RECSOURCE, NATOBJECT

    Description: A code indication of the type of item to which the record refers.

    Relevant standards: ABIS

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphabetic; as defined below:

    Values in Field Meaning
    Collection Plant specimen
    Electronic Electronic record only, specimen no longer available
    Literature Reference
    Observation Observation, including photograph of plant, but not of specimen
    Photograph Photograph of specimen

    Comments: The default should be 'Collection' for a specimen­based record. In the absence of any other value, a specimen­based record is assumed.

    The values 'Observation' and 'Literature' may be used when the presence of a taxon is solely based on an observation or a published reference to an herbarium specimen held in another institution (respectively). The value 'Electronic' is used when the presence of a taxon is solely based on an electronic record of an herbarium specimen which is no longer available.


    RECORD IDENTIFICATION GROUP

    This group of fields completely describes the botanical name of the record. These fields also enable the identification of cultivars and hybrids and intermediates using either binomials or hybrid formulae, as well as qualified identifications.

    These fields enable the interchange of either the 'full' scientific (Latin) name of a plant or the 'limited' scientific name.

    'Full' Scientific Name

    1. The 'full' scientific name includes the genus and species names, together with all infraspecific names and ranks (where relevant) and all the appropriate authorities. Such 'full' names are extremely useful, especially if the complete taxonomic name of the taxon is required.

    'Limited' Scientific

    2. If a 'full' taxonomic name is not required, then an abbreviated ('limited') scientific name can be used to precisely refer to the taxon. This option is also available in HISPID3. Such a 'limited' scientific name is transferred according to the following rules:

    If only a species name is required then:

    only the genus name and the specific epithet are required. The authority is not required unless there is some possibility of confusion between this species and a homonym.

    If the record refers to an infraspecific taxon then:

    only the genus name, specific epithet and the lowest level infraspecific epithet are required. The authority is not required unless there is some possibility of confusion between this infraspecific taxon and a homonym.

    The module for the Plant Name is based on Bisby, F.A. (1994) 'Plant names in botanical databases', Plant Taxonomic Database Standard No. 3 Version 1.00 (TDWG / Hunt: Pittsburgh).

    Hybrids, Intergrades

    Hybrids and Intergrades present considerable problems for handling of their names in electronic storage and transfer. The system presented here differs from ITF2, in that it does not indicate the taxonomic rank at which the hybrization or intergradation occurs. For example, in HISPID3, if the Hybrid Flag field is filled, then the name of the 'first' parent is transferred in the 'default' HISPID3 name fields (eg. Genus Name, Species Epithet, Infraspecific Epithet) and the 'second' parent is transferred in the 'hybrid' name fields (eg. Genus Name Parent 2 Hybrid, Species Epithet Parent 2 Hybrid, Infraspecific Epithet Parent 2 Hybrid). Unlike ITF2, this system readily allows for the interchange of hybrids and intergrades resulting from parents at different rank (eg. a hybrid between one species and the variety of another species).

    Vernacular Names

    Although the application of vernacular (common) names is not as rigorously controlled as scientific names, and they vary greatly and are often not unique for individual species, institutions may wish to interchange this information. A suggested format for interchanging these data are included (refer Vernacular Names).

    Higher Group Names

    The names of higher groups such as suprafamilial groups and families are not required in the HISPID3 transfer file because each accepted genus name in the plant kingdom is unique. However, these data may be interchanged, using the fields Suprafamilial Group Name and Family Name.

    Plant Name Authorities

    It is not necessary to include the authorities of the species and infraspecific names in a HISPID3 transfer file. However, the inclusion of authorities with the botanical names prevents confusion between homonyms. If these authorities are required, then they can be included in the transfer file. To minimise variation in the citation of the names of authors, it is recommended that a published standard for the citation of authorities be used. One such standard is Brummitt, R.K. & Powell, C.E. (1992) 'Authors of plant names' (Royal Botanic Gardens: Kew)(endorsed by the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases for Plant Sciences - TDWG).

    Other Comments

    Mixed collections are unacceptable and must be handled by duplicate records or, if the mixture is not significant, by a note in the Name Comments field.


    Suprafamilial Group Name

    Transfer code: supfam

    TDWG Short name: CLASS (?)

    Description: The relevant suprafamilial group name of the taxon referred to in the record.

    Relevant standards: ABIS (supra generic category), ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid suprafamilial group name, with first letter in uppercase.

    Comments: This field allows for material being sent for identification, particularly when even the family may not be known.

    The ABIS standard included in this field any suprageneric category including family (see next field) and any other arbitrary grouping.

    All plant groupings above the rank of genus are assigned automatically, the name depending on the classification system employed. As each institution uses its own classification system, in many cases different from others, this field and the next two fields may not always be a useful part of the interchange standard. However, it is simple to ignore this information when loading the data (if it is not required or is unsuitable), but it may be useful when reviewing the taxonomic system under which the data has been compiled when loading the file into a database.


    Family Name

    Transfer code: fam

    TDWG Short name: FAMILY

    Description: The family name appropriate to the Genus name field, entered in full.

    Relevant standards: ABIS (supra generic category), ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid plant family name, with capitalisation of the first letter only. If the name of the plant family is unknown, then this field may contain the value UNKNOWN (in uppercase). In this case, the remaining name fields should not be filled.

    Comments: There is no universally accepted classification of plant genera into families, and several systems are in use in herbaria. Individual herbaria may choose to store two (or more) family fields to reflect different classification systems.

    If institutions store family names or standard nomenclature in an abbreviated or encoded form, these must be expanded for transfer.

    The ABIS standard includes this field in a suprageneric category (see previous field).


    Suprageneric Group Rank

    Transfer code: supgenrk

    Description: A field to indicate the rank of the suprageneric group name of the plant.

    Relevant standards: ABIS (supra generic category)

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid suprageneric group rank, below the rank of family and above the rank of genus, capitalisation of the first letter only.

    Comments: See comments on conventions and necessity of this type of information under Family Name and Suprafamilial Group Name fields.

    This field must contain the full name of the rank of the suprageneric group, eg. 'subfamily'.


    Suprageneric Group Name

    Transfer code: supgen

    Description: The suprageneric group name of the plant, entered in full.

    Relevant standards: ABIS (supra generic category)

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid suprageneric group name, below the rank of family, capitalisation of the first letter only.

    Comments: See comments on conventions and necessity of this type of information under Family Name and Suprafamilial Group Name fields.

    If the name of the genus of the plant is unknown, then this field does provide a higher level of identification than does the Family Name field alone.


    HYBRIDS, GRAFTS, CHIMAERA AND INTERGRADES

    The interchange of hybrid formulae and intergrade names is particularly difficult in a flat­file format because the relational nature of these data cannot be readily maintained. Unlike ITF2 which has Hybrid Flag fields for intergeneric, interspecific and infraspecific hybrids and intergrades, HISPID3 has only one (namely, Hybrid Flag field, refer below). In HISPID3, the Hybrid Flag indicates the type of hybrid, grafts, chimaera or intergrade involved, but does not describe the rank to which it applies. If the name is a Latin or non-Latin collective name, or if the name is a graft or chimaera, then only the standard 'default' HISPID3 name fields are required in the transfer file. For example, the name Lonicera x tellmaniana would be tranferred with the letter 'x' in the Hybrid Flag field, 'Lonicera' in the Genus Name field, and 'tellmaniana' in the Species Epithet field.

    The concept of 'parent 1' and 'parent 2' has been implemented in HISPID3 to handle the transfer of names in the form of hybrid formulae and intergrades.

    Example 1: the intergeneric hybrid Rhododendron x Vaccinium would transferred with the letter 'H' in the Hybrid Flag field, 'Rhododendron' in the Genus Name field ('parent 1' - transfer code: gen) and 'Vaccinium' in the Second Hybrid Genus Name field ('parent 2' - transfer code: genhy2). That is:

    hyb "H",
    gen "Rhododendron",
    genhy2 "Vaccinium",

    Example 2: the hybrid Prostanthera cuneata x Prostanthera lasianthos var. subcoriacea would be transferred with the letter 'H' in the Hybrid Flag field, 'Prostanthera' in the Genus Name field, 'cuneata' in the Species Epithet field ('parent 1' - transfer code sp), 'lasianthos' in the Second Hybrid Species Epithet field ('parent 2' - transfer code sphy2), 'var.' in the Second Hybrid Infraspecific Rank Flag ('parent 2' - transfer code isprkhy2), and 'subcoriacea' in the Second Hybrid Infraspecific Epithet field ('parent 2' - transfer code: isphy2). In this example, hybrid formulae which describe the results of hybridisation at different ranks can be effectively interchanged. That is:

    hyb "H",
    gen "Prostanthera",
    sp "cuneata",
    sphy2 "lasianthos",
    isprkhy2 "var",
    isphy2 "subcoriacea",

    Example 3: the hybrid Magnolia campbellii subsp. mollicomata x Magnolia sprengeri var. diva would be transferred as:

    hyb "H",
    gen "Magnolia",
    sp "campbellii",
    isprk "subsp.",
    isp "mollicomata",
    sphy2 "sprengeri",
    isprkhy2 "var.",
    isphy2 "diva",

    Hybrid Flag

    Transfer code: hyb

    Description: A field to indicate whether the plant name refers to a hybrid, graft chimaera or intergrade, without reference to rank.

    Relevant standards: ITF, MFN, Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: If the accession is a hybrid, graft chimaera or intergrade, then the Hybrid field must consist of one of the characters in the table below:

    Values in Field Nature of name in Genus Name field
    x A Latin collective name for a hybrid
    G A non-Latin collective name for a hybrid
    H A hybrid formula for a hybrid
    + A graft hybrid or graft chimaera
    ­ An intergrade of non-hybrid nature

    Comments:

    1. The rules associated with these values are outlined under Genus Name field.

    2. For interchange and data storage purposes, the value in this field for a hybrid is a lowercase 'x' not a multiplication sign (as specified in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature), since the multiplication sign does not occur in the ASCII character set.

    3. If an 'x' is placed in this field, then the plant name must be validly published under the ICBN.

    Notes: ITF includes the letter 'U' in the 'Infraspecific Hybrid Flag' (refer ITF2) to indicate a Cultivar group name. However, HISPID3 only uses the Cultivar Group Name field (refer below) to transfer these data.


    Genus Name

    Transfer code: gen

    TDWG Short name: GENUS

    Description: The name of the genus of a plant or ,if part of a hybrid formula or intergrade, then the name of the first 'parent' of that formula or intergrade, entered in full.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, MFN, Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid genus name, capitalisation of the first letter only.

    Comments: This field, combined with the following Species Epithet and Infraspecies Epithet fields, constitute the minimum taxonomic information for the identity of the specimen.

    This field may contain an embedded hyphen, in which case the second word is in lowercase

    1. This field must contain one of the following:

    1.1 A validly published generic name under the ICBN or a manuscript name.

    If the Hybrid Flag field is not filled (not transferred), then this field must contain:

    1.1.2 A non­hybrid name, validly published under the ICBN or a manuscript name.

    If the name of the genus of the plant is unknown, then:

    1.1.3 This field should not be filled. In this case, the remaining name fields should also not be filled.

    If the Hybrid Flag is H and the name is an intergeneric hybrid name, then:

    1.1.4 This field must contain the first 'parent' of a hybrid formula for an intergeneric hybrid name, validly published under the ICBN, eg. 'Rhododendron' for the hybrid formula Rhododendron x Vaccinium

    If the Hybrid Flag is x and the name is an intergeneric hybrid name, then:

    1.1.5 This field must contain an intergeneric hybrid name, validly published under the ICBN, eg. Halimiocistus for x Halimiocistus sahucii.

    If the Hybrid Flag is + and the name is an intergeneric graft hybrid or graft chimaera, then:

    1.1.6 This field must be the name of an intergeneric graft hybrid or graft chimaera, validly published under the Cultivated Code, eg. Crataegomespilus for + Crataegomespilus dardarii.

    If the Hybrid Flag is - and the name is an intergeneric intergrade, then

    1.1.7 This field must contain the name of the first 'parent' of the intergrade.


    Second Hybrid Genus Name

    Transfer code: genhy2

    TDWG Short name: GENUS

    Description: The second name of a hybrid formula or intergrade between two plant genera, entered in full.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid genus name, capitalisation of the first letter only.

    Comments: Refer discussion under HYBRIDS, GRAFTS, CHIMAERA AND INTERGRADES and compare with Genus Name field, above.


    Subgeneric Group Name

    Transfer code: subgen

    Description: The subgeneric group name of the plant, preceded by its rank, entered in full.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid subgeneric group name, capitalisation of the first letter only.

    Comments:

    1. The subgeneric group name must be a single word.

    2. The first letter must be in uppercase (A­Z), the rest of the word in lowercase letters (a­z).

    3. One or two hyphens are permitted in the word; no characters other than the letters outlined above are permitted.

    This field must contain a validly published subgeneric group name under the ICBN.

    This field must also contain one of the following abbreviations of the rank of the Subgeneric Group name:

    Abbreviation Full subgeneric group name
    subgen. Subgenus
    sect. Section
    subsect. Subsection
    ser. Series
    subser. Subseries

    If the name of the genus of the plant is unknown, then this field must not be filled. In this case, the remaining name fields should also be unfilled.

    If the species name of the plant is unknown, then (if filled) this field does provide a higher level of identification than does the Genus Name field alone.


    Species Qualifier

    Transfer code: spql

    Description: This qualifier permits the Species Epithet field to be used for normal species names, as well as names of aggregate (refer Comments 1, below) or segregate species.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values:

    1. If the Species Epithet field is not filled, then this field must not be filled.

    2. If the Hybrid Flag is filled and the value in that field refers to an interspecific hybrid, then this field must not be filled.

    Otherwise:

    3. This field must consist of one of the values in the table below, which refers to the following situations in Species Epithet field:

    Content of field Nature of Name in Species Epithet field

    agg. An aggregate species
    s. lat. aggregate species (sensu lato)
    s. str. segregate species (sensu stricto)

    Comments:

    1. If the entry is 'agg.', then the plant has been identified to an aggregate species, and not to any of the segregate microspecies within the aggregate.

    2. If this field is filled, then Infraspecific Rank Flag and Infraspecific Epithet fields must not be filled.

    3. The terms collective species or species groups are sometimes also used in plant names. They should be treated as for aggregate species.

    4. Under the current standards, it is not possible to use the aggregate/segregate concept at levels other than the species level.

    1. This data type is quite distinct from the identification qualifier.

    Species Epithet

    Transfer code: sp

    TDWG Short name: SPEPITHET

    Description: The species epithet of the plant or ,if part of a hybrid formula or intergrade, then the name of the first 'parent' of that formula or intergrade, entered in full.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, TLR, MFN, Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid species name, all lowercase, no embedded spaces.

    Comments:

    1. The specific epithet must be one word (except as in the cases of Rules 1.1, 1.2, 3 and 4, below).

    2. It must consist of lowercase letters (a­z), and may contain one or two hyphens. No other characters are permitted (except in the cases of Rules 1.1 and 1.2).

    3. The field may be left unfilled if the species epithet is unknown. It must be left unfilled if the Genus name is unknown (Genus Name field) or the Family Name field has the value UNKNOWN.

    4. If the specific epithet of a plant is uncertain, then the following name fields should not be filled.

    Rules:

    1. If the Hybrid Flag is not filled, then this field must contain a validly published, non­hybrid specific epithet under the ICBN, except in the following special cases:

    1.1 If the plant has not been identified to specific level, the field must be left unfilled, as must the following name fields. (The abbreviation sp. should not be entered in these circumstances.)

    1.2 If the plant represents a new species which has not been formally described, then sp. nov., sp. A, sp. 1 (or other acceptable codes) should be entered, if possible followed by a unique identifier, such as the collector's name and number or the locality. The following Species Author field must be left unfilled.

    2. If the Hybrid Flag is x and it refers to an interspecific hybrid, then the entry in the field must be a Latin Collective name for an interspecific hybrid, eg. tellmaniana for Lonicera x tellmaniana.

    1. If the Hybrid Flag is H and it refers to an interspecific hybrid, then the entry in the field must be a Hybrid Formula, with the species epithet of 'parent 1' in this field and the species epithet of 'parent 2' transferred in Second Hybrid Species Epithet field (transfer code: sphy2), eg. Rhododendron dichroanthum x griersonianum is interchanged as follows:
    hyb "H",
    gen "Rhododendron",
    sp "dichroanthum",
    sphy2 "griersonianum",

    If only one parent is known, then enter the specific epithet of that parent alone (without the lower case letter 'x').

    1. If the Hybrid Flag is + and it refers to an interspecific hybrid, then the entry in the field must be an Interspecific Graft Chimaera, eg. Syringa + correlata is interchanged as follows:



    hyb "+",
    gen "Xyringa",
    sp "correlata",

    5. If the Species Qualifier field is agg., then the entry in the field must be a validly published specific epithet under the ICBN, used for the name of the group of species concerned. The word agg. should not be included in the entry of this field.

    The abbreviation sp. is not interchanged in HISPID3 if a plant has not been identified to the species epithet level (Rule 1.1, above).

    For further information refer Comments under Genus Name Field.


    Second Hybrid Species Epithet

    Transfer code: sphy2

    TDWG Short name: SPEPITHET

    Description: The second specific epithet of a hybrid formula or intergrade between two plant species, entered in full.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid species name, all lowercase, no embedded spaces (refer Species Epithet field, above).

    Comments: Refer discussion under HYBRIDS, GRAFTS, CHIMAERA AND INTERGRADES and Species Epithet field, above.

    Notes: The authority of the species names are not given when the name is a hybrid formula or intergrade.



    Species AuthorFieldsSpecies Author

    Transfer code: spau

    TDWG Short name: SPAUTHOR

    Description: The author citation of the species (as given in Genus Name and Species Epithet fields, above), in standard abbreviated form

    Relevant standards: TLR, MFN, Brummitt & Powell (1992), Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid author abbreviation, initials and first letter of surname in uppercase, and other characters as described below:

    1. The full name of a species (as transferred in the Species Epithet field) must include this field.

    2. This field is not filled for the full name of a species aggregate (as transferred in the Species Qualifier and Species Epithet fields).

    3. Alphabetic letters (A-Z, a-z), fullstops (periods), pairs of brackets, apostrophes, hyphens, ampersands (&) and spaces are all valid entries for this field.

    4. For the citation of joint authors, it is recommended that the ampersand (&) is used between the last two names, not 'et' or 'and'. If more than two authors, then a comma and space (, ) are used to separate all authors except for the last two.

    5. Names in languages other than the English languages should be transliterated into the roman alphabet. However, if institutions are able to receive and send other alphabetic characters (eg. if using UNICODE), then these may be included in the transfer file.

    6. Parenthetical author or authors in the recommended form enclosed in round brackets at the beginning of the field.

    Comments: Since the author is unique to any accepted plant name, it is usually not essential for this information to be interchange.

    Notes: The authority of the species name is not given when the name refers to a hybrid formula or an intergrade. Therefore, the information transferred in this field does not refer to the Second Hybrid Species Epithet field.


    Infraspecific Rank Flag

    Transfer code: isprk

    TDWG Short name: INFRARANK

    Description: A field to indicate the lowest infraspecific rank for the name in the Infraspecific Epithet field. The contents of this field are confined to the rank of the infraspecific name of non-collective, and non-cultivar group infraspecific taxa. It also indicates the lowest infraspecific rank for the name of the first 'parent' of a hybrid formula or intergrade.

    Relevant standards: ITF (in part), MFN, Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; if the Infraspecific Epithet field is filled and the plant is not a Collective hybrid and is not a cultivar, then this field must be one of the values in the table below:

    Values in field Rank of Name in Infraspecific Epithet field (Non-hybrid names)
    subsp. Subspecies
    var. Variety
    subvar. Subvariety
    f. Form
    subf. Subform

    Comments: If the Infraspecific Epithet field is not filled, then this field must not be filled.

    Notes: The contents of this field represent the lowest infraspecific rank for this name.

    ITF excludes the infraspecific rank of hybrids from this field.

    Guidelines:

    Under the rules of the ICBN, every trinomial below the level of species is unique. Hence, Rhododendron arboreum subsp. delavayi var. peramoemum can be known uniquely as Rhododendron arboreum var. peramoemum. Therefore the name can consist of the genus, the species and the lowest infraspecific taxon name, qualified by its rank.


    Second Hybrid Infraspecific Rank Flag

    Transfer code: isprkhy2

    TDWG Short name: INFRARANK

    Description: A field to indicate the lowest infraspecific rank for the name in the Infraspecific Epithet field of the second 'parent' of a hybrid formula or intergrade. The contents of this field are confined to the rank of the infraspecific name of non-collective, and non-cultivar group infraspecific taxa.

    Relevant standards: ITF (in part), MFN, Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; if the Infraspecific Epithet field is filled and the plant is not a Collective hybrid and is not a cultivar, then this field must be one of the values in the table below:

    Values in field Rank of Name in Infraspecific Epithet field (Non-hybrid names)
    subsp. Subspecies
    var. Variety
    subvar. Subvariety
    f. Form
    subf. Subform

    Comments: Refer Infraspecific Rank Flag field (above) for further details.

    Notes: The transfer code (isprkhy2), as for other hybrid fields which are used to transfer information about the second 'parent' of the hybrid formula or intergrade conclude with 'hy2'. This should not be confused with isp2rk which is the transfer code for the Second Infraspecific Rank Flag and isp2rkhy2 which is used to transfer the rank of the Second Hybrid of the Second Lowest Infraspecific Epithet when the full taxonomic name is being transferred.


    Infraspecific Epithet

    Transfer code: isp

    TDWG Short name: INFRANAME

    Description: The epithet of the lowest infraspecific rank of the name, entered in full.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, TLR, MFN, Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid infraspecific taxon epithet, all lower case.

    Comments:

    1. The entry must be one word (except as outlined in Rules, below).

    2. It must only consist of lowercase letters (a­z), and may contain one or two hyphens. No other characters are allowed (except in the case of Rules 1.1, 2, 4 and 5, below).

    3. The field may be left unfilled to indicate that the plant is not identified below the species level. It must not be filled if the species epithet is not known. Indeterminate entries like 'subsp.', 'var.' etc., are not permissible.

    See Comments under Infraspecific Rank Flag and Species Epithet. fields.

    Rules:

    1. If the Infraspecific Rank Flag is subsp. var., subvar., f. or subf., then the entry must be an epithet in the rank denoted by that field, validly published under the ICBN, except in the following special case:

    1.1 Where a new infraspecific taxon has not been formally described, subsp. nov., var. nov., subvar. nov., f. nov., or subf. nov. may be entered, if possible followed by a unique identifier, such as the collector's name and number or the locality

    2. If the Hybrid Flag value is 'H', then the entry must represent the first 'parent' in a hybrid formula

    If the Hybrid Flag value is 'H' but only one 'parent' of a hybrid formula is known, then enter the infraspecific epithet of that parent alone

    3. If the Hybrid Flag is 'x', then the entry must be a Latin collective name for an infraspecific hybrid. The name must be valid under the Cultivated Code.

    4. If the Hybrid Flag value is G, then the entry must be a non-Latin collective name. It must be valid under the Cultivated Code.

    Guidelines:

    Under the rules of the ICBN, every trinomial below the level of species is unique. Hence, Rhododendron arboreum subsp. delavayi var. peramoemum can be known uniquely as Rhododendron arboreum var. peramoemum. Therefore the name can consist of the genus, the species and the lowest infraspecific taxon name, qualified by its rank.


    Second Hybrid Infraspecific Epithet

    Transfer code: isphy2

    TDWG Short name: INFRANAME

    Description: The epithet of the lowest infraspecific rank of the name of the second 'parent' in a hybrid formula or intergrade, entered in full.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, TLR, MFN, Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid infraspecific taxon epithet, all lower case.

    Comments: Refer the Infraspecific Epithet field for further details (above).

    Notes: The authority of the infraspecific names are not given when the name is a hybrid formula or intergrade.



    Infraspecific Author

    Transfer code: ispau

    TDWG Short name: INFRAUTHOR

    Description: The author citation of the lowest infraspecific epithet, in standard abbreviated form.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: See under Species Author field, above.

    Comments: See under Species Author field.

    Notes: The authority of the infraspecific names are not given when the name is a hybrid formula or intergrade.


    Second Infraspecific Rank Flag

    Transfer code: isp2rk

    Description: An additional field to indicate the rank of the second lowest infraspecific name (as given in the Second Infraspecific Epithet field), which is at a higher level to that of the Infraspecific Epithet field. This field is used when a 'full' taxonomic name is required (refer Comments and Notes, below). This field is also used when a 'full' taxonomic name is required for the first 'parent' of a hybrid formula or intergrade.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: See under Infraspecific Rank Flag, above. Note: these additional fields are for non-hybrid infraspecific taxa, not for hybrids, Collective names or cultivars.

    Comments: This field has been included for those institutions who wish to transfer and/or receive a complete ('full') taxonomic name (as defined in Notes, below) in a form which is more easily inserted into a database than the contents of the Full Name field (p. 47). When more than one infraspecific name is being transferred, the following fields refer to the lowest level infraspecific name: Infraspecific Rank Flag, Infraspecific Epithet, and Infraspecific Author; whereas the Second Infraspecific Rank Flag, Second Infraspecific Epithet, and Second Infraspecific Author all refer to the second lowest level of infraspecific name (eg. var. and subsp., respectively). If institutions wish to transfer more than two levels of infraspecific names in this format, then the third lowest level has the number 3 included in the Transfer Code identifier (eg. isp3rk, isp3, isp3au), and so on, as appropriate.

    Notes: The 'full' scientific name includes the genus and species names, together with all infraspecific names and ranks (where relevant) and all appropriate authorities. Such 'full' names are extremely useful, especially if the complete taxonomic name of the taxon is required.


    Second Hybrid of the Second Infraspecific Flag

    Transfer code: isp2rkhy2

    Description: An additional field to indicate the rank of the second lowest infraspecific name of the second 'parent' of a hybrid formula or intergrade (as given in the Second Hybrid of the Second Infraspecific Epithet field), which is at a higher level to that of the Second Hybrid Infraspecific Epithet field. This field is used when a 'full' taxonomic name is required.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: Refer Second Infraspecific Rank Flag, above.

    Comments: Refer Second Infraspecific Rank Flag, above.


    Second Infraspecific Epithet

    Transfer code: isp2

    Description: An additional field for the epithet of the second lowest infraspecific rank of the name of the plant, when a full taxonomic name is required (refer Comments under Second Infraspecific Rank Flag field, above).

    Relevant standards: ITF; Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: See under Infraspecific Epithet field, above. Note: these additional fields are for non-hybrid infraspecific taxa, not for hybrids, collective names or cultivars.

    Comments: Refer Comments under Second Infraspecific Rank Flag field, above.


    Second Hybrid of the Second Infraspecific Epithet

    Transfer code: isp2hy2

    Description: An additional field for the epithet of the second lowest infraspecific rank of the name of the second 'parent' of a hybrid formula or intergrade, when a full taxonomic name is required.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Bisby (1994).

    Domain/Range/Values: See under Infraspecific Epithet field, above.

    Comments: Refer Comments under Second Infraspecific Rank Flag field, above.


    Second Infraspecific Author

    Transfer code: isp2au

    Description: An additional field for the author citation of the second lowest infraspecific epithet, in standard abbreviated form.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Bisby (1994).

    Comments: Refer under Infraspecific Author and Second Infraspecific Rank Flag fields, above. Note: these additional fields are for non-hybrid infraspecific taxa, not for hybrids, collective names or cultivars.

    Notes: The authority of the infraspecific names are not given when the name is a hybrid formula or intergrade.


    Vernacular Names

    Transfer code: vernam

    Description: A free text field to allow for the inclusion of vernacular (common) plant names.

    Domain/Range/Values: Vernacular name followed by language of each name in round brackets ( ).

    Comments: If more than one vernacular name, then each name (and language group) is separated by a comma and a space.


    CULTIVATED PLANT NAMES

    Rules for naming agricultural, forestry and horticultural plant have recently been revised in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (Ed. P. Trehane, Quarterjack Publishing, 1995). Following the lead of ITF2, HISPID3 allows compatibility with this code by introducing two new fields, the Cultivar Group Name and the Trade Designation Name, in addition to the Cultivar Name field. These three fields allow for an accurate interchange of these plants, in accordance with the rules of the above code. The only names that may be used in this code are the Cultivar epithet, the Cultivar Group epithet, and the Trade Designation name (or other similar trade name).

    Signs to indicate hybrids (x) or graft chimera (+) must NOT be used in any of the following three fields. Authors names are not required by the cultivated plant code, and should not be appended to the names given at any of the three ranks.

    Examples (from ITF2), in HISPID3 transfer format:

    1. Brassica oleracea Cauliflower Group

    gen "Brassica",
    sp "oleracea",
    culgnam "Cauliflower",

    2. Dracaena fragrans (Deremensis Group) 'Christianne'

    gen "Dracaena",
    sp "oleracea",
    culgnam "Deremensis",
    culnam "Christianne",

    3.

    Salix matsudana 'Tortuosa'

    gen "Salix ",
    sp "matsudana",
    culnam "Tortuosa",

    Cultivar Group Name

    Transfer code: culgnam

    Description: The cultivar group name of a plant.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Trehane (1995)

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha

    1. An entry in this field should consist solely of the cutivar group name.

    2. If the accession cannot be assigned to a cultivar group, then the field should not be filled.

    Comments:

    1. The cultivar group name must be a valid cultivar group name under the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. This field should not contain a cultivar name or trade designation name.

    2. The first letter of each word of the cultivar group name should be uppercase.

    3. The word 'Group' should not be appended to the cultivar group name; this is redundant in this field for transfer, or for database storage ('Group' can easily be appended to the information contained in this field in output programs).

    4. The cultivar group name should not be enclosed in parentheses (these can easily be added to the information contained in this field in output programs if required).(refer CULTIVATED PLANT NAMES example 2, below).

    Guidelines:

    1. A cultivar group is an assemblage of similar, named cultivars within a genus or species (including hybrid genera and species), eg. Lolium perenne Early Group. Such groups are often associated with a cultivar name, and in this case the Group Name is normally enclosed by round brackets, eg. Lolium perenne (Early Group) cv. Devon Eaver. For further details, see Article 4 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.

    2. Under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, cultivar group names are written in outputs as contained between round brackets or square brackets when a cultivar name or trade designation is given; if no cultivar or trade designation is given then these brackets are omitted. In outputs the word 'Group' always terminates the cultivar group name: eg. Brassica oleracea Cauliflower Group, Dracaena fragrans (Deremensis Group) 'Christianne' or Dracaena fragrans [Deremensis Group] 'Christianne'.


    Cultivar Name

    Transfer code: culnam

    Description: The cultivar name of the plant represented by this record.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Trehane (1995)

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid cultivar name. The entry should consist solely of the cultivar name. The abbreviation 'cv.' should not be used (except under Comments 3 below), nor should the entry be enclosed in single quotes (these should be added in printed outputs only).

    Comments:

    1. The cultivar must be a valid name published under the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.

    2. Where the cultivar name directly follows the generic name, as in Tulipa 'Apeldoorn', the fields between Genus name and this field should not be filled (namely, the fields from Subgeneric group name through to Cultivar Group Name).

    3. If the record represents a cultivar of unknown name, then 'cv.' should be entered in this field. This appears to contradict the approach with species names, but in this case a blank, space or null does not imply that the taxon is an unidentified cultivar.

    Guidelines:

    1. A cultivar is part of the variation of cultivated plants being clearly distinguished by attributes that are distinct, uniform, stable and are retained when propagated by a suitable means. For further details, see Article 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.

    2. Under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, cultivar names are written in outputs as contained between single quotes, eg. Citrullus lanatus 'Sugar Baby'. Double quotes or the abbreviation prefix 'cv. ' are not permitted under the Cultivated Plant Code.

    3 The first character of each word in a cultivar name should be in uppercase (A-Z).


    Trade Designation Name

    Transfer code: tranam

    Description: The trade name of an accession, where the taxon has a registered trade name or other similar trade designation.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Trehane (1995)

    Domain/Range/Values:

    1. An entry in this field should consist solely of the trade designation name, if applicable.

    2. If the accession does not bear a designated trade name, this field should not be filled.

    Comments: The trade name must be a valid name published under the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants and accepted by the International Registration Authority for the group concerned.

    Guidelines: Trade names are used in place of or additional to a cultivar name when the accepted cultivar name is not considered suitable for marketing purposes.


    Full Name

    Transfer code: fulnam

    Description: The full name of the plant, including full author citation, hybrid name, hybrid formula, collective name, cultivar name (as appropriate).

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Free text field. All previous rules, as described under the above name fields, apply in this field.

    Comments: This field allows the full taxonomic name (including author citation), horticultural names, trade names and patents. Where there is more than one infraspecific rank (eg. quadrinomials or pentanomials), the reduction of this plant name to a trinomial (with only the lowest infraspecific rank cited) obscures much of the infraspecific hierarchy (refer discussion under RECORD IDENTIFICATION GROUP above).


    Name Comments

    Transfer code: namcom

    Description: Any comments about the name of the plant are transferred in this field.

    Domain/Range/Values: Free text field.

    Comments: Although mixed collections are unacceptable in HISPID3, this field can be used to refer to such collections when the mixture is not significant.


    TYPIFICATION GROUP

    This group of fields conains three fields, Type Qualifier, Type Status and Basionym, which covers the typification of the name of the taxon as directly related to the accession record.


    Type Qualifier Flag

    Transfer code: tql

    Description: This field provides standard terms to qualify the identification of the type of the name of the record when doubts exist.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; as listed in the following table:

    Values in Field
    Possibly
    Probably
    ?
    Not

    Comments: This field is used in conjunction with Type Status (below). If the Type Status field is not filled, then this field must not be used.


    Type Status

    Transfer code: tsta

    TDWG Short name: TYPESTATUS

    Description: A code indicating the type status of the record.

    Relevant standards: TLR

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; standard abbreviation, as listed in the following table:

    Values in Field Meaning of Abbreviation

    EPI epitype
    HOLO holotype
    ISO isotype
    ISOLECTO isolectotype
    ISONEO isoneotype
    ISOPARA isoparatype
    ISOPARALECTO isoparalectotype
    ISOSYN isosyntype
    KLEPTO kleptotype
    LECTO lectotype
    NEO neotype
    PARA paratype
    PARALECTO paralectotype
    SYN syntype
    TOPO topotype
    TYPE Unknown type material

    Comments: This field is not to be filled if the record is not one of these kinds of type.

    Although topotypes have no taxonomic or nomenclatural status, the category has been included for those who may wish to interchange this information.


    Basionym

    Transfer code: basnam

    Description: The plant name (frequently the basionym) of which this specimen is a type, not necessarily the accepted name for the taxon.

    Relevant standards: TLR

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; a valid plant name, including relevant rank identifiers (such as subsp., var.,) as required, conventional capitalisation of name and author.

    Comments: Although a specimen may be the type of more than one basionym, this field must hold the most recent known name. When a specimen is the type of more than one basionym, then the following additional fields refer to the second most recent basionym, together with its type status: Type Status of Second Most Recent Basionym and Second Most Recent Basionym fields (Transfer codes: tsta2 and basnam2, respectively). If more earlier basionyms are to be transferred, then the third most recent values are interchanged in the : Type Status of Third Most Recent Basionym and Third Most Recent Basionym fields (Transfer codes: tsta3 and basnam3, respectively), and so on, as appropriate. The type qualifier field may be required to provide qualification to the identification of the types of the various earlier basionyms. These additional fields are briefly described below.

    If the record is not a type, then this field must not be filled.


    Second Most Recent Type Qualifier

    Transfer code: tql2

    Description: This field provides standard terms to qualify the identification of the type of the name of the second most recent basionym of the record when doubts exist.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; as listed in Type Qualifier Flag field (above).

    Comments: This field is used in conjunction with Second Most Recent Type Status field (below). If the Second Most Recent Type Status field is not filled, then this field must not be used.


    Second Most Recent Type Status

    Transfer code: tsta2

    TDWG Short name: TYPESTATUS

    Description: A code indicating the type status of the second most recent basionym of the record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; standard abbreviation, as listed in Type Status field (above).

    Comments: For further information refer to previous TYPIFICATION GROUP fields (above).



    Second Most Recent Basionym

    Transfer code: basnam2

    Description: The second most recent basionym of which this specimen is a type, not necessarily the accepted name for the taxon.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; a valid plant name, including relevant rank identifiers (such as subsp., var.,) as required, conventional capitalisation of name and author.

    Comments: For further information refer to previous TYPIFICATION GROUP fields (above).


    Third Most Recent Type Qualifier Flag

    Transfer code: tql3

    Description: This field provides standard terms to qualify the identification of the type of the name of the third most recent basionym of the record when doubts exist.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; as listed in Type Status field (above).

    Comments: This field is used in conjunction with Third Most Recent Type Status field (below). If the Third Most Recent Type Status field is not filled, then this field must not be used.


    Third Most Recent Type Status

    Transfer code: tsta3

    TDWG Short name: TYPESTATUS

    Description: A code indicating the type status of the third most recent basionym of the record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; standard abbreviation, as listed in Type Status field (above).

    Comments: For further information refer to previous TYPIFICATION GROUP fields (above).


    Third Most Recent Basionym

    Transfer code: basnam3

    Description: The third most recent basionym of which this specimen is a type, not necessarily the accepted name for the taxon.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; a valid plant name, including relevant rank identifiers (such as subsp., var.,) as required, conventional capitalisation of name and author.

    Comments: For further information refer to previous TYPIFICATION GROUP fields (above).

    Notes: If additional TYPIFICATION GROUP fields are required for fourth, fifth, etc. basionyms and types, then they should be transferred in the same format as the previous fields.


    VERIFICATION GROUP

    This group of fields indicates the degree of confidence that can be placed in the identification of a record.

    Identification Qualifiers

    The following comments on 'Identification Qualifiers' are relevant to the HISPID3 fields Identification Qualifier and Rank Qualified Flag.

    The degree of uncertainty of identification may be indicated by adding various terms, such as '?', 'cf.' and 'aff.', to the name of a plant. The qualifying term applies to the part of the name that immediately follows the qualifier, and they can be placed in front of any element of the name. In a HISPID3 transfer file, taxa qualified in this way are treated as positively identified only to the level one above the rank qualified, for example, a record of Cypripedium aff. candidum is treated not as a valid record of the threatened plant Cypripedium candidum but only as a record for the genus Cypripedium that requires further checking to confirm whether the plant is really C. candidum or another species.

    With infraspecific taxa and cultivars, no distinction is made between whether the term (eg. 'aff.') is added before the rank of the qualified part of the name or after it. In other words, the Prunus maritima aff. var. gravesii and Prunus maritima var. aff. gravesii are regarded as referring to the same taxon.


    Verification Level Flag

    Transfer code: vlev

    Description: The level to which the identification of the record has been verified.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; the entry must be one of the values in the table below:

    Values in Field Meaning
    0 (zero) The name of the record has not been checked by any authority
    1 The name of the record determined by comparison with other named plants
    2 The name of the record determined by a taxonomist or by other competent persons using herbarium and/or library and/or documented living material
    3 The name of the plant determined by taxonomist engaged in systematic revision of the group
    4 The record is part of type gathering or propagated from type material by asexual methods

    Comments: If it is not known whether the name of the record has been verified by an authority, then this field must not be filled.


    Verifier's Name

    Transfer code: vnam

    Description: The name of the person or persons who verified the identification of the plant, as qualified in the Verification Level field (above). Their institutional affiliation may be cited, too.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; the full name of the verifier(s).

    Comments: If it is not known whether the name of the record has been verified (that is, the Verification Level field has not been filled), then this field must not be filled.

    1. The verifier's family name (surname; with initial letter uppercase) followed by comma and space (, ) then initials of given names (in uppercase and each followed by a full stop, without spaces). Titles should be omitted.

    2. If two names are needed, the names (formatted as in point 1 above) are separated by a comma and a space. If several names are needed, then the first name (as formatted in point 1 above) may be followed by 'et al.'

    3. The verifier's institution may also be cited (as a code) in round brackets.

    Notes: If necessary, the first and or other given names should be spelt out when there is a known chance of confusion. For example, to distinguish between Wilson, Paul G. and Wilson, Peter G. (with a space after the given name; no punctuation, except as separator between two names - refer point 2 above).


    Verification Date

    Transfer code: vdat

    Description: The date on which the name of the plant was verified.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; year (4 digits) followed by month (2 digits) and the day (2 digits), without spaces between them.

    1. In this notation, leading zeroes must be included for months and days, ie. March is coded as '03' not '3' and the 6th day is coded as '06' not '6'.
    Example:
    19741008 8 October 1974
    19120209 9 February 1912
    2. If the day of the month is not known, the last two digits should be omitted.
    Example: April 1881 would preferably be transferred as 188104.
    3. If the day and the month are not known, the last four digits should be omitted and just the 4 digits of the year information interchanged.

    Guidelines: The HISPID3 transfers the year as a full 4-digit number to facilitate the use of the system in the next century, as well as to track verifications from the previous century.


    Text Verification Date

    Transfer code: texvdat

    Description: The date on which the name of the plant was verified when the date is not in a form which satisfies the international date data format (as required in Verification Date field, above).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; free text.

    Comments: This field will probably not be used very frequently, but it may be useful when the verification date on a determinavit slip is not completely legible. For example, the day and month may be decipherable, but not the year. Therefore, the interpreted information can be transferred, even though not complete.


    Verification Literature

    Transfer code: vlit

    Description: Citation of literature used for identification.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text field; cite each author, journal or book title, followed by volume, year and pages (as relevant); each component separated by comma and space.

    Comments: Where multiple references are used, the most useful reference should be mentioned first, and each reference separated by semicolons ';'.


    Verification History

    Transfer code: vhist

    Description: Chronological listing of previous identifications, stating plant name, verifier, date, and reference.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text field.

    Comments: This field would be a concatenation of information from previous Family Name, Genus Names, Species Epithet, Species Author, Infraspecific Epithet, Infraspecific Author, Verifier's Name and Verification Date fields for this record.

    Some institutions may choose to keep:


    Determinavit

    Transfer code: det

    Description: A field to indicate the nature of the taxonomic verification

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; the entry must be one of the values in the table below:

    Values in Field Meaning
    conf. confirmavit
    cit. citavit
    det. determinavit
    scrips. scripsit
    vid. vidit

    Rank Qualified Flag

    Transfer code: rkql

    Description: The rank of the lowest name/epithet of the taxon qualified by the entry in Identification Qualifier field (see below).

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: If the Identification Qualifier field is filled, then the entry in this field must be one of the values in the table below:

    Values in Field Rank qualified
    B Below Family
    F Family
    G Genus
    S Species
    I first Infraspecific Epithet
    J second Infraspecific Epithet
    C Cultivar

    Comments: In each of these cases, the entry in the field that is qualified (eg. Species, Cultivar) must be filled.

    If the Identification Qualifier Field is not filled, then this field must not be filled. That is, this field should only be used for plants not confidently and/or fully determined.


    Identification Qualifier

    Transfer code: idql

    Description: A standard term to qualify the identification of the taxon when doubts have arisen while comparing the plant and the plant- description; refer introductory note under CULTIVATED PLANT NAME (above) and previous field.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: If the identification does not require qualification, then this field must not be filled.

    If there is any doubt about the identification of the plant record, then this field must contain one of the following:

    Conventional Notation Meaning
    aff. Akin to or bordering
    cf. Compare with
    Incorrect Incorrect
    forsan Perhaps
    near Close to
    ? Questionable

    The above meanings are taken from Stearn, W.T. (1972). 'Botanical Latin' (David & Charles: Newton Abbot).

    Comments:

    1. The 'Incorrect' coding has been introduced into HISPID3 to mark an identification where the name applied is known to be incorrect, but a new name has not yet been assigned. This field may be used when a loan and their electronic records are returned to the host institution to indicate that although the researcher excluded the specimen from one plant group, he/she was unable to provide a positive identification.

    2. 'Forsan' and 'near' are frequently used historically.

    3. "Near' is an occasional alternative for 'cf.' and '?'.

    4. At the generic level, the symbol '?' is normally the only identification qualifier used.

    5. The symbol '?' is to be interpreted as 'possibly not' the correct name of the rank nominated in the Rank Qualified Flag field. The '?' clarifies which name or epithet is questioned (usually the lowest rank).

    6. The '?' symbol is not to be used to express doubts concerning the lumping or splitting of certain taxa (refer Species Qualifier field, above).


    Name Comments

    Transfer code: namcom

    Description: A description of any further qualifications to the identity of the name of the record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; free text.


    LOCATION GROUP

    This group of fields covers all the descriptive and coded spatial data that describes the geographic position that a plant was collected from, including supporting data such as altitude, depth (particularly for aquatic plants), and degree of precision in citing the locality details.

    Where relevant, all of the standard HISPID3 fields in this group, the HABITAT GROUP, and the COLLECTION GROUP refer to the original wild source collection information. That is, the information recorded in all of these fields (eg. Collection Date, Primary Collector's Name, Country of Origin, Habitat, Locality, Collection Notes, Primary Subdivision of Country of Origin, Secondary Subdivision of Country of Origin, Specific Geographic Unit) refers to the original wild source collection.

    Subsequent Location Fields

    If the current accession was taken from a secondary source (eg. cultivated material, of known or unknown wild source), then the relevant field identifiers would all be prefaced by the word 'Subsequent' and the relevant Transfer Codes would be prefaced by a lowercase 's'. For example, if an herbarium collection was taken from a cultivated collection growing in an Australian botanic garden which had been originally grown from seeds collected in the 'wild' from South Africa, then the Country field value would be 'South Africa' (with Transfer code: cou), whereas the Subsequent Country field (Transfer code: scou) would be 'Australia'. Likewise, the field which contains the information about the collector's name of the current accession which was taken from cultivated material would be known as Subsequent Collector's Name and the Transfer code would be scnam. The same 'Domain/Range/Values' apply as for the relevant 'primary' data fields.

    Note: these 'subsequent fields have not be further described in HISPID3, but they should be applied when required.

    Geocode Information

    The geocode information of the 'Place of Origin' data are held in a hierarchy of 4 levels. These are:

    1. a. Political country (written in full), strictly following the ISO system;
    b. Political country (codified), according to the ISO system;
    2. Basic Recording Unit of the World Geographical Scheme;
    3. A defined subdivision of the ISO unit;
    a. Primary subdivision of Country of Origin;
    b. Secondary subdivison of Country of Origin;
    4. The locality;
    a. Locality in text format;
    b. Special Geographical Unit.

    The information relates to the place where the plant was collected, not to the full distributional range of the taxon.

    Spatial Data Interchange

    The spatial data interchange standard followed by HISPID3 is based on the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS). The use of this standard for data transfer is expected to become common place. It has been accepted as a USA Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) and as an Australian standard by Standards Australia Committee IT/4. The Australia, New Zealand Land Information Council (ANZLIC) has supported this choice by sponsorship of AUSDEC (Australian Spatial Data Exchange Centre) whose purpose is to faciliate the introduction and adoption of SDTS in Australia. AUSLIG (Australian Surveying and Land Information Group) have defined a profile subset of SDTS which is applicable to their own data type. Full text of the Australian SDTS standard is available from AUSDEC or from Standards Australia.

    The interchange of the horizontal components of spatial data (eg. Latitudes/Longitudes, Grids) in HISPID3 must follow:

    Note: MGA94 and WGS84 (World Geodetic System 1984 - as modified in 1994)(the reference frame used by GPS) are in agreement to within approximately 1 metre. For specific details of requirements for map grid references in HISPID3 refer Spatial Grid fields (below).

    The interchange of the vertical components of spatial data (eg. Altitude, Depth) in HISPID3 must follow:


    Country

    Transfer code: cou

    TDWG Short name: ISOCOUNTRY (?), BOTCOUNTRY, CONTINENT(?), REGION, ISOREGION, BASICRECU

    Description: The name of the country or major region where the plant specimen was collected, entered in full.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, TLR, WGSUB, ISO, Hollis & Brummitt (1992)

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; accepted standard full political country name, uppercase.

    Comments: If the name of the country where the plant was collected is unknown, then this field should contain the value 'UNKNOWN' (in uppercase). In this case, the following ISO Code for Country of Origin field must have the entry 'XX' or 'XY'. All remaining 'location group' fields should be left unfilled.

    It is recommended that the spelling of the country should be as recognised by the International Standards Organization (ISO).

    It is recommended that new country names be enclosed in square brackets, after the old country name, where country names or boundaries have changed. The 2 letter ISO codes in ISO Code for Country of Origin field (refer below) assist the updating of countries where boundaries are changing.

    Separate fields for state/province and country are needed to adequately handle the situation with international collections.


    ISO code for Country of Origin

    Transfer code: iso

    Description: The 2 letter code for the representation of the name of the country where the plant was collected, using the codes assigned by the International Standards Organization (ISO).

    Domain/Range/Values: The code must consist of 2 uppercase letters (A­Z).

    Comments:

    1. This field can only contain a valid entry as defined by the International Standards Organization (ISO Standard 3166).

    2. Two other entries are permitted in addition to those defined by ISO:

    Values in Field Meaning
    XX Country unknown
    XY Country not applicable

    Notes: The 'XX' code should be used when no 'Country of Origin' information is provided. The 'XY' code should be used for non-specific collection localities, eg. Africa, South East Asia.


    World Geographical Scheme

    Transfer code: wgs

    Description: World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions by S. Hollis and R.K. Brummitt. - Plant Taxonomic Database Standards No. 2, Version 1.0 (1992).

    Domain/Range/Values: The contents of this field must be a valid entry from the above publication.

    Comments:

    1. This code contains up to 5 characters when taken to the complete Level 4 Geographical Scheme.

    2. Every code is unique, so that the Level 1, 2 and 3 codes must also be recognised if the complete Level 4 code is not provided.


    Primary Subdivision of Country of Origin

    Transfer code: pru

    Description: The primary recording unit which is the highest order subdivision recognised by the Country of Origin.

    Relevant standards: ITF; Hollis & Brummitt (1992) Complete 4-level Geographical scheme (refer Table 4 in Hollis & Brummitt, 1992).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; in full or standard abbreviation accepted by or agreeing with the Hollis & Brummitt (1992) standard full Complete 4-level Geographical area.

    Comments:

    1. The entry in the field should preferably be a valid entry as defined by Table 4 (Hollis & Brummitt 1992).

    2. If the entry is not part of the Hollis & Brummitt (1992) standard, then it must be equivalent to the entries in this latter standard. For example, this field is expected to contain State, Province, and other comparable geographical regions.

    3. The abbreviations used for this field may be based on the official (frequently political) abbreviations used within the Country of Origin, rather than those of Hollis & Brummitt (1992) or the primary recording unit may be transferred in full.



    Secondary Subdivision of Country of Origin

    Transfer code: sru

    Description: The secondary recording unit which is the second highest-order subdivision of Country of Origin field.

    TDWG Short name: BASICRECU (?), LOCALPOLU

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, TLR, WGSUB

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; written in full or any valid regional code or abbreviation (and then in uppercase) as used by the relevant country or region

    Comments: This field contains the district or region from which the specimen was collected, usually a subdivision of State or Province.


    Special Geographic Unit

    Transfer code: sgu

    Description: The special geographic recording unit describes specific conservation areas and other nature reserves of Country of Origin field.

    Relevant Standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; written in full.

    Comments: The field consists of the name of a defined conservation area, such as national or state parks, forest reserves, nature reserves, conservation or heritage parks.


    Locality

    Transfer code: loc

    TDWG Short name: LOCALITY, STANLOC (?)

    Description: The locality where the plant was collected within the country and subdivisions assigned in the previous three fields.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text, plain language description of the locality, as on the specimen label.

    Comments: Where the locality covers more than one country, eg. 'Himalayas', and the Country Of Origin is unknown, an entry in the Locality field may be used in conjunction with the value 'XX' (in ISO code for Country of Origin field) and UNKNOWN (in the Country of Origin field).



    Altitude

    Transfer code: alt

    TDWG Short name: ELEVATIONL

    Description: The altitude of the collection locality or if the collection has been made over an altitudinal range, then the minimum altitude of the collection locality (cf. Maximum Altitude field), in metres above or below sea level (cf. Depth field).

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ITRF, AHD71, ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real; any geographically reasonable altitude in metres.

    Comments: Altitudes in feet must be converted to metres before data are interchanged.

    Negative values indicate terrestrial altitudes below sea level (depressions), not aquatic environments or caves (refer Depth field below). A negative altitude must be preceded by a minus sign, without a space. The plus sign for positive altitudes should be omitted.

    If the Altitude is unknown, then this field should not be filled.



    Accuracy of Altitude

    Transfer code: altacy

    TDWG Short name: ELEVLACCUR

    Description: The estimated accuracy of the altitude or, when a range of altitudes given, then the estimated accuracy of the minimum altitude, in metres.

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ITRF, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real; in metres. If degree of accuracy is unknown, then this field should not be filled.

    Comments: Refer to Comments: of the Altitude field.

    The two fields Accuracy of Altitude and Accuracy of Maximum Altitude (refer below) are given to record the accuracy of the altitude geocodes when a collection is made over an altitudinal range. The Accuracy of Altitude field refers to the accuracy of the value recorded for the lower Altitude field, and Accuracy of Maximum Altitude applies to the value in Maximum Altitude field. If the collection altitude only refers to one value, then only Altitude field and the Accuracy of Altitude should be filled.

    Examples: If a collection was made from several plants growing on a mountain side, then Altitude field refers to the lowest altitude, and Maximum Altitude field to the highest altitude. The collector may have a very accurate altitude reading for the lowest position, but only a coarse approximation for the upper range. Therefore the accuracy value in the Accuracy of Altitude field would be different from that recorded in the Accuracy of Maximum Altitude field. By filling out the two Altitude fields, the data receiver knows that the specimens were collected over a spectrum of plant material.

    Altitude 100 Material collected from several plants with an accurate
    Accuracy of Altitude 5 lower altitudinal reading, but with the upper altitudinal
    Maximum Altitude 250 limit anywhere between 225 and 275 metres.
    Accuracy of Maximum Altitude 25

    Another example is when the collection was from only one plant source, for which there is an inaccurate altitude reading.

    Altitude 1000 This plant was collected at an altitude anywhere
    Accuracy of Altitude 100 between 900 and 1100 metres.

    Note: if the Accuracy of Altitude field is omitted, then it should be assumed that the level of accuracy is not known.


    Maximum Altitude

    Transfer code: altx

    TDWG Short name: ELEVATIONH

    Description: The maximum altitude when the collection is cited as having been collected over an altitudinal range, in metres above or below sea level (cf. Depth field).

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ITRF, AHD71, ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real; any geographically reasonable altitude in metres.

    Comments: Altitudes in feet should be converted to metres before data are interchange. Negative values indicate terrestrial altitudes below sea level (depressions), not aquatic environments or caves (refer Depth field below). A negative altitude must be preceded by a minus sign, without a space. The plus sign for positive altitudes should be omitted.


    Accuracy of Maximum Altitude

    Transfer code: altacyx

    TDWG Short name: ELEVHACCUR

    Description: The estimated accuracy of the maximum altitude when the collection is cited as being taken from within an altitudinal range, in metres.

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ITRF, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real; in metres. If degree of accuracy is unknown, then this field should not be filled.

    Comments: Refer to Comments of the Altitude field and Accuracy of Altitude field (above).

    Note: If the Accuracy of Altitude and/or the Accuracy of Maximum Altitude fields are omitted, then it should be assumed that the level of accuracy is not known.


    Source of Altitude Accuracy Flag

    Transfer code: altsou

    Description: Flag indicating the source of the altitude and precision calculations.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid entry as listed in the following table:

    Values in Field

    collector

    compiler

    automatically generated.

    Comments: The altitudes and altitude precisions provided by the plant collector are usually from GPS readings, maps on-site, extracted from the field book or from the herbarium label. Those provided by compilers other than the collector, are based on the locality stated in the field book or on the herbarium label. Automatically generated altitudes and altitude precisions are produced by various computer programs (eg. GIS, DEM).


    Method of Altitude Determination

    Transfer code: altdet

    Description: This field indicates how the altitude was derived.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid entry as listed in the following table:

    Values in Field Meaning

    Altimeter
    DEM Digital Elevation Model
    GPS Global Positioning System
    Field Estimate
    Map
    Unknown

    Comments: Although this field may be coded in institutional databases, the full word or phrase should be used when interchanging data.


    Depth

    Transfer code: dep

    Description: The depth of the collection locality beneath the water surface or below the ground surface, in metres.

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ITRF, AHD, ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real, any geographically reasonable depth, in metres.

    Comments: Depth in feet and fathoms must be converted to metres before transfer.

    Depth below ground surface would be used to indicate the depth of a collection made from within a terrestrial cave.

    As with the altitude fields (namely Altitude and Maximum Altitude fields), a duplicate field may be necessary to indicate a range of depths, or the accuracy of measurement; refer Maximum Depth and Accuracy of Maximum Depth (below).


    Accuracy of Depth

    Transfer code: depacy

    Description: The accuracy of the depth estimation, or when a range of depths are given, then the accuracy of the minimum depth estimation, in metres.

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ITRF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real; in metres. If degree of accuracy is unknown, then this field should not be filled.

    Comments: If the Accuracy of Depth field is omitted, then it should be assumed that the level of accuracy is not known.


    Maximum Depth

    Transfer code: depx

    Description: The maximum depth when the collection is cited as being taken from a range of depths, in metres beneath the water surface or below the ground surface.

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ITRF, AHD, ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real; any geographically reasonable depth in metres.

    Comments: Depth in feet and fathoms should be converted to metres before transfer.


    Accuracy of Maximum Depth

    Transfer code: depacyx

    Description: The accuracy of the maximum depth estimation when the collection is cited as being taken from a range of depths, in metres.

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ITRF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real; in metres. If degree of accuracy is unknown, then this field should not be filled.

    Comments: If the Accuracy of Depth and/or the Accuracy of Maximum Depth fields are omitted, then it should be assumed that the level of accuracy is not known


    Latitude, Degree

    Transfer code: latdeg

    TDWG Short name: LATDEGH, LATDEGH

    Description: The degrees of latitude of the collection locality, as quoted from the herbarium label or derived.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, AUSLIG Master Name File, Gazetteers

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; within the range 0 ­ 90, any valid and biogeographically meaningful latitude in degrees.

    Comments:

    1. If the latitude is not known, then this and the following latitude fields must be left unfilled.

    3. If this field is filled, then the last latitude field (Latitude, Direction) must consist of one of the letters 'N' or 'S' (for North or South).

    4. The geocode information should be interchanged as latitude and longitude in degrees, minutes, seconds and direction. Decimal degrees must be converted to degrees, minutes and seconds before the data are interchanged.

    5. Grid references should be converted to degrees, minutes, seconds and direction before data are interchanged.

    Notes: The ABIS standard indicates a single 7­character field, the first two of which are degrees, the second two minutes, the third two seconds and last one direction. This standard is not followed in HISPID3.

    To indicate a range of latitudes and longitudes, a duplicate set of latitude and longitude fields will be required.

    When this field is selected, then the Longitude fields must be used, not the Spatial Grid fields.


    Latitude, Minutes

    Transfer code: latmin

    TDWG Short name: LATMINH, LATMINL

    Description: The minutes of latitude of the collection locality, as quoted from the label or derived.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; 0 ­ 59, any valid and biogeographically meaningful latitude in minutes.

    Comments: See Comment under Latitude, Degrees.

    1. If the latitude degrees (Latitude, Degrees field) is not known, then this and the following latitude fields must be left unfilled.
    2. If the latitude minutes (Latitude, Minutes field) is not known, then this and latitude seconds (Latitude, Seconds Field) must be left unfilled.

    Latitude, Seconds

    Transfer code: latsec

    TDWG Short name: LATSECH, LATSECL

    Description: The seconds of latitude of the collection locality, as quoted from the label or derived.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; 0 ­ 59, any valid and biogeographically meaningful latitude in seconds.

    Comments: See Comment under Latitude, Degrees.

    If the value for this field is unknown, then this field must be left unfilled.


    Latitude, Direction Flag

    Transfer code: latdir

    TDWG Short name: LATDIRHIGH, LATDIRLOW

    Description: The abbreviated direction of latitude of the collection locality, relative to the equator, as quoted from the label or derived.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; N or S.

    Comments: See Comment under Latitude, Degrees.

    If Latitude, Degrees field is filled, then this field must consist of one of the letters 'N' or 'S' (for North or South).


    Longitude, Degrees

    Transfer code: londeg

    TDWG Short name: LONGDEGH, LONGDEGL

    Description: The degrees of longitude of the collection locality, as quoted from the label or derived.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, AUSLIG Master Name File, Gazetteers

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; 0 ­ 180, any valid and biogeographically meaningful longitude in degrees.

    Comments:

    1. Exact location information for rare and/or endangered plants can be omitted from the transfer record by not transferring the seconds from the Latitude, Seconds and Longitude, Seconds fields for latitude and longitude, respectively or, for more conservationally sensitive plants, the data in the Latitude, Minutes and Longitude, Minutes fields need not be transferred.

    2. If the longitude is not known, then this and the following longitude fields must be left unfilled.

    3. If this field is filled, then the last longitude field (Longitude, Direction) must consist of one of the letters 'E' or 'W' (for East or West).

    4. The geocode information should be interchanged as latitude and longitude in degrees, minutes, seconds and direction. Decimal degrees must be converted to degrees, minutes and seconds before the data are transferred.

    5. Grid references should be converted to degrees, minutes, seconds and direction before data are transferred.

    To indicate a range of latitudes and longitudes, a duplicate set of latitude and longitude fields will be required.

    Notes: The ABIS standard indicates a single 8­character field, the first three of which are degrees, the second two minutes, the third two seconds and last one direction. This standard is not followed in HISPID3.

    When this field is selected, then the Latitude fields must be used, not the Spatial Grid fields.


    Longitude, Minutes

    Transfer code: lonmin

    TDWG Short name: LONGMINH, LONGMINL

    Description: The minutes of longitude of the collection locality, as quoted from the label or derived.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; 0 ­ 59, any valid and biogeographically meaningful longitude in minutes.

    Comments: See Comment under Longitude, degrees.

    1. If the longitude degrees (Longitude, Degrees field) is not known, then this and the following longitude fields must be left unfilled.

    2. If the longitude minutes (Longitude, Minutes field) is not known, then this and longitude seconds (Longitude, Seconds field) must be left unfilled.


    Longitude, Seconds

    Transfer code: lonsec

    TDWG Short name: LONGSECH, LONGSECH

    Description: The seconds of longitude of the collection, as quoted from the label or derived.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; 0 ­ 59, any valid and biogeographically meaningful longitude in seconds.

    Comments: See Comment under Longitude, Degrees.

    If the value for this field is unknown, then this field must be left unfilled.


    Longitude, Direction Flag

    Transfer code: londir

    TDWG Short name: LONGDIRHIGH, LONGDIRLOW

    Description: The abbreviated direction of longitude of the collection locality, relative to Greenwich, as quoted from the label or derived.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; E or W.

    Comments: See Comment under Longitude, Degrees.

    If the Longitude, Degrees field is filled, then this field must consist of one of the letters 'E' or 'W' (for East or West, respectively).


    Spatial Grid, Projection

    Transfer code: sgp

    Description: The projection type of the Map Grid system which is used to determine the position of the locality from which the plant specimen was collected.

    Relevant standards: The default system is normally expected to be ITRF or derivative standards (eg. MGA94, GDA94).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha, internationally accepted codes (as used in SDTS); the default system for HISPID3 is normally expected to be the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid System (UTM). Wherever possible, the Eastings and Northings should be converted to UTM or a derivative of it. For example, the MGA (Map Grid of Australia) is a derivative of UTM and is derived from the projection of latitudes and longitudes on the Australian Geodetic Datum (AGD) and Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA).

    Comments: In general, it is recommended that grid references be converted to latitudes and longitudes for interchange (refer previous latitude and longitude fields).


    Spatial Grid, Easting

    Transfer code: sge

    Description: The Map Grid Easting reference of the locality from which the plant specimen was collected.

    Relevant standards: ITRF or derivative standards (eg. MGA94, GDA94).

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; any valid grid reference, in metres. The Easting must consists of the following two elements:

    Hemisphere Code values in Field Meaning
    N Northern Hemisphere Indicator
    S Southern Hemisphere Indicator

    Note: This single letter code must preface the Easting.

    Note: The complete Easting must always be cited as a six-digit integer or to the level of accuracy recorded by truncation from the right.

    An example of a complete Grid Easting reference would be S347000. An example of an Easting to the nearest kilometre for the same locality would be S347.

    Comments: In general, it is recommended that grid references be converted to latitudes and longitudes for interchange (refer previous latitude and longitude fields). When this field is selectred for transfer then Spatial Grid, Northing must also be used, not the Latitude and Longitude fields.

    Note: Grid Zone designation codes must not be used.


    Spatial Grid, Northing

    Transfer code: sgn

    Description: The Map Grid Northing reference of the locality from which the plant specimen was collected.

    Relevant standards: ITRF or derivative standards (eg. MGA94, GDA94).

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; any valid grid reference, in metres. The Northing must consists of the following two elements:

    Hemisphere Code values in Field Meaning
    N Northern Hemisphere Indicator
    S Southern Hemisphere Indicator

    Note: This single letter code must preface the Northing.

    Note: The complete Northing must always be cited as a seven-digit integer or to the level of accuracy recorded by truncation from the right.

    An example of a complete Grid Northing reference would be S5739000. An example of Grid Northing to the nearest kilometre for the same locality would be S5739.

    Comments: In general, it is recommended that grid references be converted to latitudes and longitudes for interchange (refer previous latitude and longitude fields). When this field is selectred for transfer then Spatial Grid, Easting must also be used, not the Latitude and Longitude fields.

    Note: Grid Zone designation codes must not be used.


    Accuracy of Geocode

    Transfer code: geoacy

    TDWG Short name: LATACCUR, LONGACCUR

    Description: The precision of the latitude and longitude of the record.

    Relevant standards: SDTS, ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Real; in metres.

    Comments: If the latitude and longitude are not known, or the accuracy is in doubt, then this field should be left unfilled and hence, not interchanged.


    Source of Geocode precision

    Transfer code: geosou

    Description: Flag indicating the source of the geocode and precision calculations.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any value as listed in the following table:

    Values in Field

    collector

    compiler

    generalised arbitrary point

    automatically generated.

    Comments: The geocodes provided by the plant 'collector' are usually from GPS readings, maps on­site, extracted from field books or from the herbarium label. Those provided by the database 'compiler' are derived from the locality information provided by the collector. Computer-generated geocodes are either derived from a nearest named place ('generalised arbitrary point') or from a stated locality.


    Nearest Named Place

    Transfer code: nnp

    TDWG Short name: STANLOC (?)

    Description: The nearest named place to the locality of the collection, 1:100 000 topographic map series.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, AUSLIG Master Name File

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid place name on 1:100 000 topographic map series, conventional capitalisation of the first letter of place names.

    Comments: Uncertainty with the application of this field to historical material, reduces its usefulness. However individual institutions may choose to use it as part of their core data and so make it available for interchange.


    HABITAT GROUP

    This group of fields describes the physical and environmental characteristics of the locality in which the plant was collected as opposed to the characteristics of the plant itself.


    Habitat

    Transfer code: hab

    TDWG Short name: HABITAT

    Description: Description of the habitat of the accession, including the geology and soil type in which the plant grows, as well as the associated species of the community from which this accession was collected.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text, any meaningful habitat descriptions.

    Comments: This information is usually provided by the original collector.

    This is an aggregate field, containing information that could be divided among the following fields. In fact, many herbaria have entries for these segregate fields in their field note books.

    Since there are no universally accepted schemes for the classification of soils, vegetation, landforms and substrates that modern collectors can be expected to follow, the information in this field is regarded as free text. Furthermore, to translate a collector's historical descriptions into modern schemes is prone to error and misinterpretation.

    Institutions with entirely or partially codified habitat data will have to expand the codes prior to interchange.

    Institutions with habitat data (as defined here) stored in discrete fields must combine these fields prior to interchange if they are to use this field in the transfer format.


    Topography

    Transfer code: top

    TDWG Short name: GEOLOGY (?)

    Description: A description of the topography of the habitat from which the specimen was collected.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text.

    Comments: Refer Comments under Habitat.

    Information in this field includes landform, situation, etc.


    Aspect

    Transfer code: asp

    Description: The abbreviated aspect or outlook of the site from which the plant was collected

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid directional or aspect abbreviation.

    Values in Field Meaning
    N North
    S South
    E East
    W West
    also NE, SE, NW, SW, NNE, ENE, ESE, SSE, NNW, WNW, WSW, SSW.
    also Open Used to refer to a plain or ridge crest
    Closed Used to refer to a valley or ravine

    Comments: Refer Comments under Habitat.


    Substrate

    Transfer code: sub

    Description: The substrate or parent rock material in the habitat from which the specimen was collected.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; free text.

    Comments: Refer Comments under Habitat.

    This field should not include descriptions of soil type.


    Soil Type

    Transfer code: soil

    TDWG Short name: SOILS

    Description: Description of the surface soil type from which the specimen was collected.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text.

    Comments: Refer Comments under Habitat.

    In many cases it is difficult to separate soil and substrate information from a habitat description.


    Vegetation

    Transfer code: veg

    TDWG Short name: VEGETATION

    Description: Description of the vegetation from which the specimen was collected.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text.

    Comments: Refer Comments under Habitat.

    The contents of this field are sometime inseparable from the contents of the next field, Associated Species.


    Associated Species

    Transfer code: asspp

    Description: A list of associated species found in the same habitat as the collected specimen.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; free text, scientific names (with standard Capitalisation) or non-scientific names.

    Comments: In most herbaria, this field is combined with the previous field as part of the vegetation description; with historical material it is sometimes difficult to separate these two fields.

    Refer Comments under Habitat and Vegetation.


    COLLECTION GROUP

    This group of fields deals with all the descriptive and coded information that describes the collector's names, field numbers, and dates of collection.

    It does not cover descriptive information about the plant itself nor habitat information (refer previous and following groups).

    Where relevant, all of the standard HISPID3 fields in this group refer to the original wild source collection information (refer LOCATION GROUP, above for further details).

    Subsequent Collection Fields

    If the current accession was taken from a secondary source (eg. cultivated material, of known or unknown wild source), then the relevant field identifiers would all be prefaced by the word 'Subsequent' and the relevant Transfer Codes would be prefaced by a lowercase 's'. For example, the field which contains the information about the collector's name of the current accession which was taken from cultivated material would be known as Subsequent Collector's Name and the Transfer Code would be scnam. The same Domain/Range/Values and Comments apply for these 'Subsequent' fields as for the relevant 'primary' data fields.


    Primary Collector's Name(s)

    Transfer code: cnam

    TDWG Short name: COLLECTOR

    Description: The name of the person or persons who made the collection from the wild on which this record is based, and whose collection number is cited in the next field (refer Collector's Identifier field).

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, TLR

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid collector's name, primary collector's family name (surname) followed by comma and space (, ) then initials (all in uppercase and each separated by fullstops). All initials and first letter of the collector's family name in uppercase. For example, Chambers, P.F. For exceptions to this format, refer Comments (below).

    Comments: The collection number of the record (refer Collector's Identifier) is regarded as being assigned by the primary collector of the material (as cited in this field).

    If more than one primary collector is associated with the collection number(cf. Secondary Collector's Name field, below), then the names of these collectors should be cited in this field, with the comma and space used to separate these multiple collectors. For example, Tan, F., Jeffreys, R.S.

    If necessary, the first and or other given names should be spelt out when there is a known chance of confusion. For example, to distinguish between Wilson, Paul G. and Wilson, Peter G. (with a space after the given name; no punctuation, except as separator between two names, as described above).

    If only one person collected the material from the wild, as represented by this record, then the person's name must be entered only in this field.

    Titles should be omitted.

    If the family name (surname) consists of a preposition and a substantive, as in many European names (eg. C.G.G.J. van Steenis), then the preposition is in lowercase and the substantive has a Capital first letter. The remaining letters are in lowercase. Names of this form should be transferred as follows:

    cnam "Steenis, C.G.G.J. van",

    Other examples of similar form include: de la Salle, d'Entrecasteaux, van Royen. However, it is important to note that many of these names have been anglicised, particularly in America, such that both parts of the family name are treated as the substantive. In such examples, these names are to be transferred as follows:

    cnam "De Nardi, J.C.",

    The prefixes O', Mac' Mc' and M' (eg. MacDougal, McKenzie, O'Donnell) should all be treated as part of the substantive and hence transferred as part of the family name. For example:

    cnam "McKenzie, V.",

    Hyphenated given names should be tranferred as all uppercase, with the first and last initial separated by a hyphen (without spaces), and only the last initial terminated by a fullstop. For example:

    cnam "Quirico, A-L.",

    cnam "Peng, C-I.",

    ABIS includes all collectors in one field in the format: surname, comma, initials. This is not followed in the HISPID3 standard.

    If the collector of the record is unknown, then this field should contain the value 'Anonymous'.

    Interpreted information should be enclosed in square brackets, eg. Anonymous [? F. von Mueller]

    The use of a personal herbarium is admissible here: eg. Anonymous (Herb. J.M. Black).



    Collector's Identifier

    Transfer code: cid

    TDWG Short name: COLLPREFIX, COLLNUMBER, COLLSUFFIX

    Description: The sequential or other codified number given to the specimen at the time of collection, by the primary collector(s), usually as on specimen label.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF, TLR

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric.

    1. The Collector's Identifier may consist of any characters in the ASCII character subset.

    2. If the Primary Collector's Name is unknown, then this field would normally not be filled.

    Comments:

    If the Collector's Identifier is part of an institutional series, then the institution's code should be included as part of the field number.

    Collector's initials should not be included as part of the field number.

    If a number or component is interpreted in any way, then the interpreted part should be enclosed in brackets.

    Care should be taken to avoid confusion with institutional collection series and sheet numbers. Numbers assigned to the specimen after collection should not be used.

    If the collection number is not known, then this field should contain the value 's.n.'

    The proposed TDWG specimen standards include number prefixes and suffixes. The interpretation of what constitutes these is likely to create more problems than it solves, so the number is treated as a single unit in HISPID3.

    The ABIS standards include a former collection number in this field but this creates problems if the specimen has also been assigned its own field number.


    Secondary Collector's Name

    Transfer code: cnam2

    TDWG Short name: COLLTEAM

    Description: Other persons responsible for the collection (from the wild) together with the primary collector of this record.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid collector's name, secondary collector's family name (surname) followed by comma and space (, ) then initials (all in uppercase and each separated by fullstops)(refer Primary Collector's Name field for further details).

    Comments: Refer Comments under Collector's Name.

    Most commonly this field will not be filled, which implies a single collector; it should not be filled if the Primary Collector's Name(s) field is not filled.

    If there are multiple secondary collectors, then the names of these collectors should be cited in this field, with the comma and space used to separate these multiple collectors. For example, Campbell, E.D., Lindley, S.A.

    If necessary, the first and or other given names should be spelt out when there is a known chance of confusion. For example, to distinguish between Wilson, Paul G. and Wilson, Peter G. (with a space after the given name; no punctuation, except as separator between two names, as described above).

    Titles should be omitted.


    'Per' Collector

    Transfer code: cper

    Description: Amateur or casual collector who collected specimen for primary collector.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid collector's family name (surname) followed by comma, then space and initials (refer Primary Collector's Name(s) field).


    Collection Date

    Transfer code: cdat

    TDWG Short name: COLLDATE

    Description: The date on which the material was collected, as represented by this record or, if a second collection date is provided (refer Second Collection Date field below), then this field contains the earlier collection date.

    Relevant standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; any chronologically acceptable date, year (4 digits) followed by month (2 digits) and then day (2 digits), without spaces between each.

    1. In this notation, leading zeroes must be included for months and days, ie. January is coded as '01' not '1' and the 4th day is coded as '04' not '4'.

    Example: 19851109 9 November 1985
    19510203 3 February 1951

    2. If the day of the month is not known, then the last two digits should be omitted.

    Example: March 1901 would preferably be transferred as 190103.

    3. If the day and month are not known, the last four digits should be omitted and just the 4 digit year information interchanged.

    Note: The year is transferred as a full 4­digit number to facilitate the use of the system in the next century, as well as to track verifications from the previous century.


    Second Collection Date

    Transfer code: cdat2

    TDWG Short name: COLLDATE2

    Description: The most recent date on which the material was collected, as represented by this record, when a range of collection dates are provided (refer Collection Date field above).

    Relevant Standards: ABIS, ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; any chronologically acceptable date, year (4 digits) followed by month (2 digits) and then day (2 digits), without spaces between each.

    1. In this notation, leading zeroes must be included for months and days, ie. January is coded as '01' not '1' and the 4th day is coded as '04' not '4'.

    Example: 19660419 19 April 1966
    19451202 2 December 1945

    2. If the day of the month is not known, then the last two digits should be omitted.

    Example: June 1911 would preferably be transferred as 191106.

    3. If the day and month are not known, the last four digits should be omitted and just the 4 digit year information interchanged.

    Notes: The year as a full 4­digit number to facilitate the use of the system in the next century, as well as to track verifications from the previous century.


    General Text Collection Date

    Transfer code: texcdat

    Description: A field which allows the description of imprecise collection dates which do not conform to the international 'Date' data standard.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha-Integer; any chronologically acceptable date which can not be converted to the format of the previous collection date fields.

    Comments: This field allows for the interchange of the following types of collection date information:

    For example:

    'Spring 1912', 'late 1800's', 'end of 19th Century'


    KIND OF COLLECTION, ADDITIONAL COMPONENTS and VOUCHER COLLECTIONS

    HISPID and ITF grouped these data into two fields (namely 'Kind of Collection & Additional Components Flag' and 'Voucher Flag') with several categories included in each. However, it may be preferable to consider separating each category into distinct fields for transfer. This would readily enable unique identifiers (such as institutional 'spirit' numbers and photographic numbers) to be transferred with each category.


    Kind of Collection & Additional Components Flag

    Transfer code: ckin

    TDWG Short name: NATOBJECT (?)

    Description: The kind of specimen­associated material represented by this record number, such as sheet, packets, spirit, slides etc., not propagating material.

    Relevant standards: TLR

    Domain/Range/Values:, Alphabetic; this field must consist of one of the values in the table below.

    Value of Field Meaning
    Alcohol Alcohol or any other fluid preserved material
    Bark Bark sample
    Boxed Boxed specimen
    Cytological Cytological preparation
    Fruit Fruit, carpological
    Illustration Illustrations
    Image Electronic image
    Other Other
    Packet Specimen stored in Packet
    Pollen Pollen sample
    Print Negatives, black & white and colour photographic prints (including Cibachrome)
    Reference Reference herbarium
    Seed Seed collection
    Sheet Herbarium sheet
    Slide Microscope slides
    Transparency Transparencies, colour slides
    Vertical Vertically filed,
    Wood Wood sample

    Comments: The difficulty with this field for interchange is that this information may only describe the attributes of the collection in one institution (namely, the originating institution). It may not be an accurate description of the interchange material, so care is needed in using this field as part of the transfer file for exchange material.

    Since a single collection may have more than one of the above attributes, the relevant individual descriptor codes should be transferred in alphabetical order, separated by a comma and a space. For example: if a collection consists of an herbarium sheet, alcohol-preserved material, and a colour photographic print, then this information would be transferred as Alcohol, Print, Sheet (note: each codes is singular, not plural).


    Voucher Flag

    Transfer code: vou

    Description: A flag to indicate if the specimen serves as a voucher for some special purpose.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphabetic; this field must consist of one of the values in the table below:

    Value of Field Meaning
    Anatomical anatomical
    Cytological cytological
    DNA DNA Studies
    Ecological ecological
    Flora Flora project
    Illustration illustration
    Indigenous indigenous uses, ethnobotany
    Living living, including seed bank
    Other palynological
    Photograph photograph
    Phytochemical phytochemical, pharmacological
    Unknown voucher for unknown purpose
    Zoological zoological

    Comments: The presence of these flags does not necessarily imply the existence of supplementary material (eg. spirit, or slides) as described in the Kind of Collection & Additional Components Flag field (above), although some may have been prepared at some stage.

    Since a single collection may be a voucher for more than one of the above categories, the relevant individual descriptor codes should be transferred in alphabetical order, separated by a comma and a space. For example: if a collection is a voucher for the current 'Flora of Australia' project and for an ecological survey, then this information would be transferred as Ecological, Flora (note: each code is singular, not plural).


    Number of Sheets, Parts

    Transfer code: numshe

    TDWG Short name: OBJECTS

    Description: The number of herbarium sheets, packets, boxes, etc., that make up the specimen represented by this record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; any reasonable number of parts.

    Comments: This field is most useful for the control of loan specimens that consist of multiple sheets or parts. It may not be so useful in other interchange files because this information may only describe the attributes of the collection in one institution (namely, the originating institution). It may not be an accurate description of the interchange material, so care is needed in using this field as part of the transfer file.


    Type of Cultivated Material Flag

    Transfer code: tcul

    Description: A code indicating the presence of living material for cultivation, collected at the time of collection of the specimen on which the record is based.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphabetic; this field must consist of one of the values in the table below:

    Values in Field Meaning
    Cutting cuttings
    Division division (of clumps etc.)
    Plant plants (whole)
    Seed seeds

    Comments: This field applies to the type of material gathered and not to the source of material.

    If this field is not filled then it can be assumed that either no propagating material was collected or that the existence of propagating material was not recorded.

    The presence of a propagating material code does not necessarily imply that live material is still in existence in cultivation.

    As with the Kind Of Collection & Additional Components field, if more than one type of material was collected for cultivation, then the relevant individual descriptor codes should be transferred in alphabetical order, separated by a comma and a space. For example: the information for a collection which consisted of cuttings and seeds would be transferred as Cutting, Seed (Note: each code is singular, not plural).


    Provenance Type Flag

    Transfer code: prot

    Description: A code to indicate the provenance of the accession of living material represented by the herbarium voucher.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphabetic; this field must consist of one of the values in the table below:

    Values in Field Meaning
    Cult. ex Wild Propagule(s) from a wild source plant in cultivation
    Cult. non-wild Accession not of wild source
    Unknown Insufficient data to determine which of the above categories apply
    Wild Accession of wild source

    Comments: The terms outlined above are defined as follows:

    Cult. ex Wild
    Accessions derived by propagation directly from an original wild source plant. The method of propagation must be recorded in the Propagation History field. If the propagation is not directly from the original wild source plant, a complete history of the intermediate propagation steps must be known, otherwise the accession should be placed in the following category.
    Cult. non-Wild
    Accessions derived from cultivated plants where the immediate source plant does not have a propagation history that can be traced in detail to a wild plant. This category normally includes all cultivars.
    Unknown Accessions where there is insufficient data or knowledge to know which of the three above categories applies.
    Wild Accessions which originate from material collected in the wild. The accession has not been propagated further, except in the case of plants that may have been grown on from the original stock. The accession may have come directly from the wild, or from a botanic garden or gene bank acting as a distribution centre. Accessions in this category will usually have accompanying collection data, but the category also includes accessions which are known to be of direct wild origin but which do not have such additional data.

    Propagation History Flag

    Transfer code: prohis

    Description: A code to indicate the nature of the production of the living plant material vouched by the herbarium material, for use in association with the previous field, Provenance Type Flag.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: One or two alphabetic letters, uppercase, as designated below.

    The entry must be one of the following values:

    Values in Field Meaning
    I Individual wild plant(s)
    S Seed or plant arising from seed (excluding apomixis)
    SA From open pollination (from the wild)
    SB From controlled pollination
    SC From plants that are isolated and definitely self-pollinated
    V Plant material derived asexually
    VA From vegetative reproduction (including vegetative apomixis)
    VB From apomictic cloning (agamospermy)
    U Propagation history uncertain or no information

    Comments

    1. The second character is optional to provide more detailed information to be recorded. It is recommended that both characters are used wherever possible.
    2. The value 'I' refers to complete individuals (or ramets) that have been removed from the wild, or to accessions which are growing naturally within the area of the establishment to which the record system applies. For example, this allows for individuals or groups of individual growing naturally (ie. not deliberately introduced) in reserve areas to receive full accession status.
    3. Seed set by apomixis should be coded 'VB' rather than by any of the 'S' codes.
    4. Most wild-collected seed will be the result of open pollination, and even taxa which are fully self-compatible will normally show a small amount of outbreeding. Only if it is absolutely certain that wild-collected seed was set as the result of selfing (eg. cleistogamy, controlled selfing) should the entry be set to 'SC'. Occasionally wild-collected seed will be the result of controlled experimental pollination, where the entry should be set to 'SB' (or 'SC' if selfed), but the majority of wild seed should be coded 'SA'.
    5. Where material has been derived from cuttings, divisions, or other vegetative propagules (including material for micropropagation) of wild plants, the entry should be set to 'VA', and not 'I'. Such vegetative propagules may potentially differ slightly from the wild individual by somatic variation.
    6. If the accession is of wild provenance (Provenance Type = Wild), then Propagation History cannot be 'U'.
    7. If Propagation History is 'I' (individual wild plants), Provenance Type must be Wild.

    Donor Type Flag

    Transfer code: dont

    Description: A code to indicate the type of donor from which the accession was obtained.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: A single uppercase alphabetic letter, as designated below:

    1. The entry must consist of one of the following characters:

    Values in Field Meaning
    B Botanic Garden or Arboretum
    E Expedition
    G Gene Bank
    H Horticultural Association or Garden Club
    I Individual
    M Municipal Department
    N Nursery or other commercial establishment
    O Other
    R Other research, field or experimental station
    S Staff of institution to which record system applies
    V University Department
    U Unknown or not applicable

    2. If more than one individual descriptor code is applicable to this record, then this information should be transferred in alphabetical order, without spaces or punctuation. For example: the information for a collection which was collected on an expedition by a University Department would be transferred as EV (also refer Comments below).

    Comments: The ITF2 transfer format recommends that 'if more than one entry applies (eg. a plant collected by the botanic garden staff on an expedition), the highest entry in the table should be used. The ITF2 standard lists the above table in the following order: E G B R S V H M N I O U.

    The purpose of this field is to allow the inclusion of information about the contents of the Donor Field. If the value for Donor Type Flag is O, then the Donor field description (see below) should be worded so as to indicate the type of donor.


    Donor

    Transfer code: don

    Description: The person, institution or business from which the accession was obtained.

    Relevant standards: ITF, Index Herbariorum

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text, use institutional code wherever possible.

    Comments: Plant material may come to an institution from many sources and in various ways. The information under these headings cannot be coded or fully standardised. The following guidelines should be used wherever possible:

    1. Accessions obtained directly from the wild, usually received from the collector. The name of the collector (surname, comma, space, initials with full stops, and standard capitalisation) should be given first, followed by the name of the country or area to which the expedition was made; or if the expedition has its own title, eg. Sino-British Expedition to China, this should be followed by the name of the country or area. Abbreviations or truncations can be used as necessary.
    2. Accessions obtained from other institutions, using standard Index Herbariorum codes, or in full if institution does not have such a code.
    3. Accessions obtained from private individuals. The minimum information should be the person's name (surname, comma, space, initials with full stops, and standard capitalisation) and country. More detail can be added, such as town and province, if necessary to identify collector.
    4. Accessions obtained from horticultural or specialist plant societies. The name of the society (truncated as necessary) followed by the name of the country in which the society is based. Avoid abbreviations where the meaning is not clear.
    5. Accessions obtained from gene banks, urban parks, garden centres or commercial suppliers. The name of institution (truncated as necessary) followed by the name of the country in which the institution is based.

    Donor's Accession Identifier

    Transfer code: donacc

    Description: Used when a living accession is transferred from one herbarium, garden or gene bank (or other institution that maintains a record system) to another, this is the unique identifier from the previous institution's record system.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; the Donor's Accession Identifier may consist of any characters in the ASCII characters. It must be prefaced by the institutional code of the donating institution.

    Comments: If the plant was originally collected by or for the donating institution from the wild, or came from a source that did not have a record system, then this field should not be filled.

    Otherwise, the Donor's Accession Identifier should be a unique set of characters that identifies each accession in the donor's record system. Or in the case of multiple accessions of the same taxon from one collection site or multiple plants derived from a single seed sowing, a single value for the Donor's Accession Identifier field is permissible.

    Notes: This field is not the Collector's identifier for the accession; those data are held under the Collector's Identifier field. It is the donor's record system identifier. This identifier is often attached to the sheet in the home institution and is not always present on donated or exchanged replicates.


    ADDITIONAL DATA GROUP

    This group of fields covers information about the plant itself, generally those characters that will not be immediately obvious from the preserved specimen.


    Collection Notes

    Transfer code: cnot

    TDWG Short name: NOTES

    Description: This field includes descriptive information about this plant record, including habit, shape and colour of vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text.

    Comments: This information is usually provided by the collector.

    As far as possible, this information should be transcribed verbatim from the herbarium label.

    Refer Comments under Locality.

    Notes: This is an aggregate field, containing information that could be divided among the following fields: Habit, Life form, Phenology. In fact, many herbaria have entries for these segregate fields in their field notebooks. Note: Information about flower colour is not interchanged as a separate field.

    The Comments about encoding data under Habitat also apply here. Institutions that encode and compartmentalise the information relevant to this field will need to expand and combine it into this single Collection Note field prior to interchange, if they wish to include this field in the transfer file.


    Frequency

    Transfer code: fre

    TDWG Short name: FREQUENCY

    Description: A description of the local abundance of the taxon represented by the record, without any perceived conservation status implied or provided, as recorded by the collector.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; free text.

    Comments: Due to the lack of agreed standards for terms covering abundance, the difficulty of interpreting historical material, and the fact that statements of abundance are usually embedded in other descriptive text, it seems preferable to combine abundance into a more general notes field (eg. Collection Notes). However, since ITF2 maintains this information as distinct from the Collection Notes field, this information is also included as a distinct field in HISPID3. However, ITF2 includes frequency assessment data in the Conservation Status (Threat) field. Although the latter field is also available in HISPID3, it is recommended that the current Frequency field, together with the three Plant Occurrence and Status Scheme fields are used to transfer information describing frequency and perceived conservation. status.


    Conservation Status (Threat)

    Transfer code: consta

    TDWG Short name: FREQUENCY

    Description: A description of the local abundance, hence perceived conservation status of the taxon represented by the specimen of this record in the above habitat, as recorded by the collector.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; free text.

    Comments: Due to the lack of agreed standards for terms covering abundance, the difficulty of interpreting historical material, and the fact that statements of abundance are usually embedded in other descriptive text, it seems preferable to combine abundance into a more general notes field (eg. Collection Notes). However, since ITF2 maintains this information as distinct from the Collection Notes field, this field is also included as a distinct field in HISPID3.


    Plant Occurrence and Status Scheme 1

    Transfer code: posnat

    Description: This field records whether the plant is a native of the collection habitat or whether it is a naturalised introduction.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: To be decided.

    Comments: It is expected that this field will have values similar to the following:

    Values in Field

    Natural

    Naturalised

    Unknown

    Guidelines: World Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge (WCMC) are working on this standard, soon to be in press.


    Plant Occurrence and Status Scheme 2

    Transfer code: poscul

    Description: This field records whether the plant occurs as a cultivated specimen or not, in the collection habitat.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: To be decided.

    Comments: This field records whether the plant is established or not established (hence, only maintained as a cultivated plant), in the collection habitat. It is expected that this field will have values similar to the following:

    Values in Field

    Cultivated

    Not cultivated

    Unknown

    Guidelines: World Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge (WCMC) are working on this standard, soon to be in press.


    Plant Occurrence and Status Scheme 3

    Transfer code: posint
    Description: This field described the method of introduction of non-native plants to the collection habitat.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: To be decided.

    Comments: It is expected that this field will have values similar to the following:

    Values in Field

    Human

    Non-human

    Unknown

    Guidelines: World Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge (WCMC) are working on this standard, soon to be in press.


    Habit, Life form

    Transfer code: form

    TDWG Short name: PLTDESCR

    Description: A description of the habit or life form of the specimen on which the record is based.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; free text, any valid description of a plant habit.

    Comments: Since there are no universally accepted schemes for the classification of habit that modern collectors can be expected to follow, the information in this field is regarded as free text. Furthermore, to interpolate a collector's historical descriptions into modern schemes is prone to error and misinterpretation.


    Phenology

    Transfer code: phe

    Description: The phenological state of the specimen represented by this record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; a value as listed in table below:

    Values in Field

    HIGHER PLANTS

    'FLOWERS' (Pre-fertilisation)

    bisexual flowers
    buds
    female cones
    female flowers
    flowers
    male/female cones
    male cones
    male flowers

    'FRUITS' (Post-fertilisation)

    fruit
    fruiting cones

    CRYPTOGAMS

    gametophyte
    sporophyte
    spore-bearing bodies

    GENERAL TERMS

    fertile
    sterile
    leafless

    Comments: If more than one individual descriptor applicable to this record, then this information should be transferred in alphabetical order, with each descriptor separated by a comma and a space (, ) For example: the information for a flowering, leafless collection would be transferred as:

    phe "flowers, leafless",



    Non­computerised Data Flag

    Transfer code: noncom

    Description: A single character indication of the presence of additional data available on the specimen and not represented in this record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; Y or N:

    Values in Field Meaning
    N No additional data present
    Y Additional data present

    Comments: The existence on the specimen label of extremely detailed field notes or botanists' annotations and comments may be flagged in this field.


    Miscellaneous Notes

    Transfer code: misc

    Description: Any additional information to be transferred pertaining to the accession, but not catered for in the preceding fields.

    Relevant standards: ITF

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; free text.


    Number of Replicates

    Transfer code: numrep

    TDWG Short name: REPLICATES

    Description: Number of replicate specimens represented by this record or collection.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer.

    Comments: A count of the replicate specimens indicated on the field label, either explicitly or implicitly through the distribution list. This information is probably not necessary for interchange, especially if the Replicates Destination field is transferred (see below).


    Destination of Replicates

    Transfer code: desrep

    Description: The initial destination(s) of replicate specimens, using Index Herbariorum codes.

    Relevant standards: Index Herbariorum

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid Index Herbariorum code (in uppercase), or name written in full if no code available, separated by comma and space.

    Comments: The destinations in this field are the initial, not the ultimate, destination. There is no reliable way of checking if and where donated specimens may have been redirected.


    LOAN GROUP

    This group of fields contains information pertaining to specimen loan transactions. In a normalised database this group of fields fits very comfortably into a separate linked table. Some institutions maintain this information in a separate database.

    To reduce duplication of data entry effort and to facilitate monitoring of specimens on loan, specimen data should be exchanged with the specimens going on loan.


    Loan Identifier

    Transfer code: loaid

    Description: The unique institutional loan number applied with the loan sequence number to uniquely identify a specimen on loan.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; with or without other special characters.

    Comments: This can be a simple sequential number series or an encoded arrangement involving the year and the loan number within the year. Institutions that store a loan number as two separate fields will need to combine the fields prior to interchange.

    Used in association with the next field, Loan Sequence Number.


    Loan Sequence Number

    Transfer code: loanum

    Description: The sequence of a specimen within a given loan, assigned with the Loan Identification to uniquely identify a specimen on loan.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; values starting at 1 and sequential.

    Comments: Used in association with the previous field, Loan Identification.


    Loan Destination

    Transfer code: loades

    Description: Institution to which the loan is being sent.

    Relevant standards: Index Herbariorum

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid Index Herbariorum code (in uppercase), or written in full if no code available.

    Comments: Although this field is described here, the information in this field should be included in the file identifier field Description of File Contents and other Comments (p. 19).


    Loan for Botanist

    Transfer code: loabot

    Description: Name of botanist for whom the loan is destined.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid botanist's name, with the botanist's family name (surname) first, then comma and space, followed by initials (in uppercase and each separated by fullstops), first letter of surname capitalised.

    Comments: Although this field is described here, the information in this field should be included in the file identifier field Description of File Contents and other Comments (p. 19).


    Loan Despatch Method

    Transfer code: loadis

    Description: The means by which the loan is being despatched from the home institution.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha.

    surface mail
    airmail
    airfreight
    road
    rail
    courier
    safe hand
    insured/registered

    Comments: As with the previous fields, the information in this field should be included in the file identifier field Description of File Contents and other Comments (p. 19).


    Loan Date

    Transfer code: loadat

    Description: The date the loan is prepared and/or sent

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; year (4 digits) followed by month (2 digits) and then day (2 digits), without spaces between each. That is, YYYYMMDD. For example, the 8th June 1975 would be transferred in the form 19750608 (refer Collection Date for further details).

    Comments: Although this field is described here, the information in this field is equivalent to the information already included in Date of File field (p. 15). Therefore, this information should be included in the latter file identifier field.


    Loan Return Date

    Transfer code: loaret

    Description: The date on which the loan is due to be returned to the home institution.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; year (4 digits) followed by month (2 digits) and then day (2 digits), without spaces between each. That is, YYYYMMDD. For example, the 4th February 1996 would be transferred in the form 19960204 (refer Collection Date for further details).

    Comments: This information can be either attached to every interchange record or included in the file identifier field Description of File Contents and other Comments (p. 19).


    DATA ENTRY AND EDIT GROUP

    The fields in this group record house­keeping details of data entry and modification and can be largely automated and transparent to the user.

    It is possible and perhaps desirable to keep an in­house audit trail of all modifications to the record and not just the last modification.

    This group is important in the management of new data and data corrections between institutions interchanging information. They provide a useful means of tracing the sources of interpreted information and errors. They can also be used to avoid the duplication of data entry.


    Record Creation Operator

    Transfer code: crenam

    TDWG Short name: CREATEBY

    Description: Name or sign­on code of the person who created or entered the initial data for this record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; any valid operator name or code.

    Comments: The use of an unique code here can serve as a link to more detailed biographical data.


    Record Creation Date

    Transfer code: credat

    TDWG Short name: CREATEDATE

    Description: Date of data creation or the initial entry of this record in database.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; year (4 digits) followed by month (2 digits) and then day (2 digits), without spaces between each. That is, YYYYMMDD. For example, the 22nd July 1987 would be transferred in the form 19870722 (refer Collection Date for further details).


    Record Creation Institution

    Transfer code: creins

    TDWG Short name: CREATEINST

    Description: The institution where this record was created or initially entered.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; any valid Index Herbariorum code.

    Comments: Although this field is described here, this information is often equivalent to the contents of the record identifier field Institution Code. In these instances, this field need not be transferred. However, if the electronic record was originally created at a third institution, then the code of this third institution should be included here as it will be different to the entry in the Institution Code field.


    Record Update Operator

    Transfer code: modnam

    TDWG Short name: UPDATEBY

    Description: Name or sign­on code of the last person to modify or update data for this record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alphanumeric; any valid operator name or code.

    Comments: The use of an unique code here can serve as a link to more detailed biographical data.


    Last Edit Date

    Transfer code: moddat

    TDWG Short name: UPDATEDATE

    Description: Date of the last modification or update of this record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Integer; year (4 digits) followed by month (2 digits) and then day (2 digits), without spaces between each. That is, YYYYMMDD. For example, the 14th October 1995 would be transferred in the form 19951014 (refer Collection Date for further details).


    Record Update Institution

    Transfer code: modins

    TDWG Short name: UPDATEINST

    Description: The institution where this record was last modified or updated.

    Domain/Range/Values: Alpha; uppercase, any valid Index Herbariorum code.

    Comments: Although this information is described here, the contents of this field are equivalent to Institution Code.

    This information would be very useful when institutions come to share data and sort out multiple modifications to the same specimen information.


    End of HISPID3 Record

    Transfer code: }

    Description: The single character } indicating the end of a HISPID3 Record.

    Domain/Range/Values: Must contain the symbol '}' only.

    Comments: To be found at the end of each HISPID3 record indicating the end of the data of a record, prior to beginning the next record or the 'endfile' identifier if it is the last record in the transfer file.


    End of HISPID3 File

    Transfer code: endfile

    Description: The end of the transfer file has the file identifier 'endfile' only.

    Domain/Range/Values: Must contain the transfer code 'endfile' only (all in lowercase).

    Comments: To be found at the very end of a HISPID3 file indicating the end of the file.


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