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The Cycad Pages
CORALLOID ROOTS AND NITROGEN FIXATION
Juliana Medeiros and Dennis Stevenson

References and further reading

Appleby, C.A., D. Bogusz, E.S. Dennis and W.J. Peacock. 1988. "Gene for haemoglobin in all plant roots?" Plant Cell and Environment 11:359-367.

Bhatnagar, S.P. and Alok Moitra. 1996. Gymnosperms. New Age International, New Delhi.

Carr, N.G., and B.A, Whitton. 1982. The Biology of Cyanobacteria. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Chang, D.C.N., N. Grobbelaar and J. Coetzee. 1988. "SEM observations on cyanobacteria-infected cycad coralloid Roots." South African Journal of Botany 54(5): 491-495.

Cohen-Bazire and D.A. Bryant. 1982. "Phycobilisomes: composition and structure." In N.G. Carr and B. A. Whitton [eds.] The Biology of Cyanobacteria. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. P. 143-190.

Daday, A. and G.D. Smith. 1987. "The hydrogenase-nitrogenase relationship in a symbiotic cyanobacterium isolated from Macrozamia communis L. Johnson." Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 14: 319-324.

Dilworth, M.J. and A.R. Glenn. 1991. Biology and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Fisher, Jack and Andrew Vovides. 2001 (in press). "Mycorrhizae are present in Cycad roots."

Grilli Caiola, Maria. 1975a. "A light and electron microscopic study of blue-green algae growing in the coralloid roots of Encephalartos altensteinii and in culture." Phycologia 14(1): 25-33.

Grilli Caiola, Maria. 1975b. "Structural and ultrastructural aspects of blue-green algae growing in the coralloid roots of Dioon edule and in culture." Phykos 14(1&2); 29-34.

Grilli Caiola, Maria. 1990. "Structural arrangement of phycobionts in coralloid roots of Cycads." Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 57: 94-103.

Guerrero, M.G., and C. Lara. 1987. "Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen." In P. Fay and C. Van Baalen [eds.], The Cyanobacteria. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Joubert, L., N. Grobbelaar and J. Coetzee. 1989. "In situ studies of the ultrastructure of the cyanobacteria in the coralloid roots of Encephalartos arenarius, E. transvenosus and E. woodii (Cycadales)." Phycologia 28(2): 197-205.

Kumar, A. P., B.T.V.V. Perraju and H.N. Singh. 1986. "Carbon nutrition and the regulation of uptake hydrogenase activity in free-living and symbiotic Anabaena cycadeae." New Phytologist 104: 115-120.

Lamont, B.B. and R.A. Ryan. 1977. "Formation of coralloid roots be Cycads under sterile conditions." Phytomorphology 27(4): 426-429.

Lindblad, Peter. 1984. "Diversion between acetylene-reduction and heterocyst frequency in a Cycad root." In C. Veeger and W.E. Newton [eds.] Advances in Nitrogen Fixation Research. Nijhoff/Junk, The Hague, Netherlands.

Lindblad, Peter. 1990. "Nitrogen and carbon metabolism in coralloid roots of Cycads." Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 57: 104-113.

Lindblad, P., C.A. Atkins and J.S. Pate. 1991. " Nitrogen fixation by freshly isolated Nostoc from coralloid roots of the Cycad Macrozamia riedlei (Fisch. Ex Gaud.) Gardn." Plant Physiology 95: 753-759.

Lindblad, P. And B. Bergman. 1988. "Occurrence and localization of Phycoerythrin in symbiotic Nostoc of Cycas revoluta and in the free-living Nostoc 7422." Plant Physiology 89: 783-785.

Lindblad, Peter, R. Haselkorn, B. Bergman and S.A. Nierzwicki-Bauer. 1989. "Comparison of DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms of Nostoc strains in and from cycads." Archea Microbiologia 152: 20-24.

Lindblad, Peter and A. Sellstedt. 1990. "Occurrence and localization of an uptake hydrogenase in the filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC73102." Protoplasma 159: 9-15.

Liu Guo-fan, Deng Ting-xiu, Zhou Lin and Yang Si-Yuan. 1993. "The root nodules and nitrogen fixation in Cycas panzhihuaensis." In D.W. Stevenson and Knut Norstog [eds.] The biology, structure and systematics of the Cycadales. Proceedings of CYCAD 90, the second international conference on Cycad biology. Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia Ltd., Queensland. P.165-168.

Mauseth, James D. (1988) Plant Anatomy. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park.

Miller, R.W. 1991. "Molybdenum nitrogenase." In M.J. Dilworth and A.R. Glenn [eds.], Biology and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation. Elsevier, Amsterdam. Pp. 9-36.

Rai, A.N., E. Soderback and B. Bergman. 2000. "Cyanobacterium-plant symbiosis." New Phytologist 147(3): 449-481.

Rowell, P., and N.W. Kerby. 1991. "Cyanobacteria and their symbionts" In M.J. Dilworth and A.R. Glenn [eds.], Biology and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation. Elsevier, Amsterdam. P. 373-407.

Smith, D.C. and A.E. Douglas. 1987. The Biology of Symbiosis. Edward Arnold Ltd., London.

Staff , Ian A. and C.P. Ahern. 1993. "Symbiosis in Cycads with special reference to Macrozamia communis." In D.W. Stevenson and Knut Norstog [eds.] The biology, structure and systematics of the Cycadales. Proceedings of CYCAD 90, the second international conference on Cycad biology. Palm and Cycad Societies of Australia Ltd., Queensland. p. 200-210.

Storey, W.B. 1968. "Somatic Reduction in Cycads." Science 159: 648-650.

Taiz, Lincoln and Eduardo Zeiger. 1998. Plant Physiology. Second edition. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Webb, D.T. 1983b. "Nodulation in light- and dark-grown Macrozamia communis L. Johnson seedlings in sterile Culture." Annals of Botany 52: 543-547.

To be completed: Pate et al 1986 Obukowicz et al., 1981 de Luca et al. 1980 Grobbelaar et al., 1986 Lindblad et al. 1991 Bergman et al. (1986) Grove et al.(1980

The Cycad Pages

© 1998-2012 Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney
Written and maintained by Ken Hill 1998-2010
Maintained by Leonie Stanberg and Dennis Stevenson 2010-2012
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