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The Cycad Pages
CYCAD TOXICITY
Nadia Audhali and Dennis Stevenson

REFERENCES

 De Luca, P., Moretti, A., Sabato, S., Siniscalco Gigliano, G. 1980. The ubiquity of cycasin in cycads. Phytochemistry 19: 2230-2231.

Duncan, M., Marini, A.,Watters, R., Kopin, I. & Markey, S. 1992. Zinc, A neurotoxin to cultured neurons, contaminates cycad flour prepared by traditional guamanian methods. J. Neuroscience 12: 1523-1537.

Garruto, R., Yanagihara, R. & Gajdusek, D. 1985. Disappearance of high-incidence amyotophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism dementia on Guam. Neurology 35: 193-198.

Garruto, R., Yanagihara, R. & Gajdusek, D. 1988. Cycads and amytrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia. Lancet 2: 1079. 1988.

Hirano, A., Malmud, N. & Kurland, L. 1961. Parkinsonism-dementia, an endemic disease on the island of Guam. II. Pathological features. Brain 84: 662-679.

Hon-Ming Lam, Chiu, J., Ming-hsiun, Meisel, L., Olivera, I., Shin, M. & Coruzzi, G. 1998. Glutamate receptor genes in plants. Nature 396: 125-126.

Jones, M., Yang, M. & Michelsen, O. 1972. Effects of methylazomethanol glucoside and methylazomethanol acetate on the cerebellum of the postnatal Swiss albino mouse. Federation Proceedings 31: 1508-1515.

Seawright, A., Ng, J., Kurland, L., Osborne, R. & de Matteis, F. 1995. The occurrence and possible health significance of toxins in cycad pollen. In P. Vorster (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cycad Biology, pp. 97-107. Pretoria, South Africa.


The Cycad Pages

© 1998-2012 Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney
Written and maintained by Ken Hill 1998-2010
Maintained by Leonie Stanberg and Dennis Stevenson 2010-2012
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