Description: Shrubs or trees with scaly buds, evergreen or deciduous, commonly with tough bark on the twigs; monoecious or dioecious.
Leaves alternate, simple, commonly 2-ranked, often scabrous, mostly asymmetric at base, margins entire or toothed, frequently 3-veined at base; stipules small, shed early.
Inflorescence cymose, racemose or flowers solitary, axillary or terminal on lateral branches, or flowers solitary and axillary. Flowers actinomorphic or nearly so, bisexual or unisexual, floral parts hypogynous to perigynous, usually small, greenish. Perianth with 4–8 lobes. Stamens usually as many as perianth lobes, rarely more; anthers 2-locular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Carpels usually 2, united to form a compound ovary with separate styles and decurrent stigmas.
Fruit a drupe, [nut or samara].
Distribution and occurrence: World: 6 genera, c. 40 species,mostly N. temperate, esp. Asian, few species tropical, not in Australia and the Pacific. Australia: 1 genus, 5 species (all naturalized).
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Ulmaceae, Order: Rosales)
Edited by H. Sauquet (Jan 2019: circumscription, occurrence, and key, not description); note that several genera of Cannabaceae (incl. Aphananthe, Celtis, and Trema) were previously included as members of Ulmaceae here (PlantNET) and in the Flora of Australia (1989)
Text by G. J. Harden
Taxon concept: Angiosperm Phylogeny Group / Australian Plant Census (2018)