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Genus Calandrinia Family Portulacaceae

Description: Succulent prostrate to erect annual [or perennial] herbs. Flowering stems usually leafy towards the base, to 60 cm long.

Leaves basal and on the lower part of the flowering stems in most species, decreasing in size along the flowering stems, alternate [or opposite], mostly linear to lanceolate, or oblanceolate to obovate, acute to obtuse, succulent, entire, glabrous, usually sessile.

Inflorescences few- to many-flowered cymes; pedicels erect, spreading or reflexed in fruit; bracts alternate or opposite, usually scarious. Sepals commonly persistent. Petals 4–7, often 5, free, white, pink or purple. Stamens 3–numerous. Ovary superior, ovoid to globose, ovules 1–numerous; stigmas 3 or 4, mostly sessile on the ovary, rarely on a short style.

Capsule dehiscing through 3 or 4 valves or rarely through a pore at the apex, light brown or rarely black; seeds 1–numerous, shiny [or dull], smooth or variously patterned.


Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 120 species, Australia, North & South America. Australia: c. 40 species, all States.

Text by J. G. West
Taxon concept:

 Key to the species 
KEY BASED ON FLORAL, FRUITING AND VEGETATIVE FEATURES
1Capsules 4-valved; stigmas 42
Capsules 3-valved or with a terminal pore; stigmas 33
2Prostrate to decumbent herb with stems to 40 cm long; leaves basal and on flowering stems; stamens 6–11; seeds with 6–10 concentric ribsCalandrinia ptychosperma
Prostrate herb with stems to 5 cm long; leaves all basal; stamens 4–6; seeds with colliculate to papillate testa
                       Back to 1
Calandrinia sp. A sensu Harden (1990)
3Capsules obpyriform, opening by a terminal pore; seeds 2, superposed; petals to 1.5 mm longCalandrinia disperma
Capsules ovoid or globose, opening by valves; seeds >10, not superposed; petals >1.5 mm long
                       Back to 2
4
4Basal leaves usually >5 cm long; stamens >20; petals usually >5 mm wide5
Basal leaves usually <5 cm long; stamens <20; petals usually <5 mm wide
                       Back to 3
6
5Stigmas sessile on the ovary; capsules 5–6 mm long; seeds lenticular, smooth, c. 0.5 mm diameterCalandrinia remota
Stigmas on a style 2–3 mm long; capsules 7–9 mm long; seeds reniform, colliculate, >1 mm long
                       Back to 2
Calandrinia balonensis
6Capsules black, subglobose, trigonous, 1.5–2.2 mm long; sepals not persistentCalandrinia granulifera
Capsules light brown, ovoid or globose but not trigonous, usually >2 mm long; sepals persistent
                       Back to 5
7
7Leaves all basal, petiolate; capsules globose, circumsciss at the base, pericarp membranousCalandrinia pumila
Leaves basal and on flowering stems, usually sessile; capsules ovoid, not circumsciss, pericarp crustaceous
                       Back to 6
8
8Valves of capsules not persistent; seeds papillate-punctate; stamens 4–6Calandrinia pickeringii
Valves of capsules persistent; seeds smooth, colliculate or papillate, not punctate; stamens usually >6
                       Back to 5
9
9Petals 7–10 mm long; capsules 7–9 mm long, with acuminate, recurved valves; seeds flattened at the margins; leaves subsessile or petiolateCalandrinia menziesii
Petals to 7 mm long; capsules to 7.5 mm long, with obtuse, incurved or involute valves; seeds not flattened at margins; leaves sessile
                       Back to 8
10
10Seeds 10–20, lenticular, smooth to faintly colliculate; petals 2–3 mm longCalandrinia calyptrata
Seeds >20, reniform, colliculate to papillate; petals usually longer than 3 mm
                       Back to 9
11
11Inflorescences twining; fruiting pedicels curved upwards; capsules 5.5–7.5 mm long; seeds without a coppery lustreCalandrinia volubilis
Inflorescences straight (not twining); fruiting pedicels straight, reflexed; capsule 3–5 mm long; seeds with a coppery lustre
                       Back to 9
Calandrinia eremaea
KEY TO SPECIES BASED ON SEED AND CAPSULE CHARACTERS
1Seeds 2, superposed, dark red-brown to black, colliculate to papillate near the hilum, upper seed ovoid, 1.5–1.8 mm long, 0.7–0.8 mm diameter, lower seed subrhomboidal, 1.4–1.5 mm long, 1–1.2 mm diameterCalandrinia disperma
Seeds ≥10, usually >20, not superposed2
2Seeds lenticular3
Seeds reniform or obovoid, numerous
                       Back to 1
5
3Seeds black, flattened towards the margin, 1.4–1.7 mm diameter, colliculate, numerousCalandrinia ciliata
Seeds red-brown to dark brown, not flattened towards the margin, 0.5–0.7 mm diameter, smooth to faintly colliculate
                       Back to 2
4
4Seeds 10–20, smooth to faintly colliculate; capsules 2–3.6 mm longCalandrinia calyptrata
Seeds numerous, smooth; capsules 5–6 mm long
                       Back to 3
Calandrinia remota
5Seeds reniform6
Seeds obovoid
                       Back to 2
8
6Seeds 1–1.3 mm long, c. 0.8 mm wide, colliculate, black or dark red-blackCalandrinia balonensis
Seeds to 0.7 mm long, colliculate to papillate or papillate, red-brown, dark brown, grey or black, sometimes with a coppery lustre
                       Back to 5
7
7Seeds colliculate to papillate, 0.4–0.7 mm wide, red-brown, grey or rarely black, with a coppery lustre; fruiting pedicels straight, reflexedCalandrinia eremaea
Seeds papillate all over, c. 0.6 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, dark brown to black, without coppery lustre; fruiting pedicels curved upwards
                       Back to 6
Calandrinia volubilis
8Seeds with 6–10 concentric ribs, 0.5–0.7 mm long, 0.4–0.6 mm diameter, black or rarely dark red-brownCalandrinia ptychosperma
Seeds colliculate to papillate-punctate, never ribbed, dark brown or red-brown to black
                       Back to 5
9
9Seeds smooth to colliculate, light red-brown; capsules globose or trigonous10
Seeds colliculate to papillate or papillate-punctate, dark red-browwn to black; capsules ovoid
                       Back to 8
11
10Seeds colliculate, c. 0.5 mm long, 0.4 mm diameter, capsules black, dehiscing through short valves at the apex; sepals not persistentCalandrinia granulifera
Seeds smooth to colliculate, 0.4–0.5 mm long, 0.3 mm diameter; capsules light brown, 2.6–3.5 mm long, circumsciss at base; sepals persistent
                       Back to 9
Calandrinia pumila
11Seeds colliculate to papillate, c. 0.5 mm long, 0.5 mm diameter; capsules >4 mm long, 4-valved, valves persistentCalandrinia sp. A sensu Harden (1990)
Seeds papillate-punctate, c. 0.7 mm diameter; capsules <3 mm long, 3-valved, valves not persistent
                       Back to 9
Calandrinia pickeringii

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