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Genus Celtis Family Cannabaceae

Description: Shrubs or trees, evergreen or deciduous; monoecious or polygamous.

Leaves entire or regularly toothed, 3–5-veined from near base.

Inflorescences axillary on new shoots, racemes or panicles. Flowers unisexual and/or bisexual, axillary, the male flowers clustered, female and bisexual flowers solitary or 2 or 3 together. Perianth segments 4–6.

Fruit a drupe.


Distribution and occurrence: World: 80 species, tropical & temperate areas. Australia: 5 species (2 species native), Qld, N.S.W., N.T., W.A.

*C. sinensis Pers., native of Asia, is naturalized in southern Qld, but no records have been substantiated for N.S.W.

Text by G. J. Harden
Taxon concept:

Taxa not yet included in identification key
Celtis conferta

 Key to the species 
1Leaves entire, elliptic to lanceolate; inflorescences many-floweredCeltis paniculata
Leaves toothed, lanceolate to broad-ovate; inflorescence 1–few-flowered2
2Upper surface of leaves distinctly rough and scabrous; lower surface pubescent to glabrous; mature fruit brown to black or purple to black3
Upper surface of leaves ± smooth and glabrous; lower surface with hairs usually confined to midvein; mature fruit orange
                       Back to 1
Celtis sinensis
3Lower surface of leaves pale, almost white, and softly hairy, 1–4 cm wide; bark smoothCeltis australis
Lower surface of leaves paler green than upper surface; usually mostly glabrous, 3–7 cm wide; bark furrowed
                       Back to 2
Celtis occidentalis

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