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Genus Endiandra Family Lauraceae

Description: Shrubs or trees.

Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, with areolate venation (except in E. introrsa).

Flowers in axillary panicles, usually shorter than the leaves. Flowers bisexual, mostly 3-merous (4-merous in E. globosa). Perianth segments 6 or 8, not persistent in fruit. Stamens usually 3 (4–6 in E. globosa), anthers 2-locular, dehiscence usually extrorse (introrse in E. introrsa); associated glands present or occasionally absent, staminodes usually 3 (sometimes 2–0 in E. globosa). Ovary superior.

Drupe ovoid or globose, usually large and seated directly on the pedicel.


Photo © ANBG

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 100 species, Asia, Malesia, Australia, Pacific islands. Australia: 38 species (endemic), Qld, N.S.W., N.T.

Text by G. J. Harden
Taxon concept:

 Key to the species 
1Leaves green on both surfaces, sometimes lower surface paler2
Leaves glaucous on lower surface, this feature not always apparent on older leaves11
2Veins on lower surface of mature leaves glabrous; hairy domatia sometimes present in axils of primary and secondary veins; young shoots often finely hairy3
Veins on lower surface of mature leaves hairy; domatia usually absent; young shoots rusty-tomentose to velvety
                       Back to 1
9
3Leaves with midrib flattened on lower surface, margins and midrib yellowish; lamina small, mostly less than 8 cm long; petiole often red; bark corky but hardEndiandra sieberi
Leaves with midrib raised and rounded on lower surface; lamina mostly more than 8 cm long; petiole not reddish; bark not corky
                       Back to 2
4
4Leaves with length to breadth ratio of more than 4:1 (leaves appearing narrow)Endiandra virens
Leaves with length to breadth ratio of less than 4:1 (usually less than 3:1 and leaves appearing broad)
                       Back to 3
5
5Leaves usually with 3–9 pairs of secondary veins, conspicuous on both surfaces, raised below, reticulate venation areolate, fine and even, prominent but not raised; domatia present or absent6
Leaves usually with more than 10 pairs of secondary veins, prominently raised on both surfaces, reticulate venation relatively coarse; domatia absent
                       Back to 4
Endiandra compressa
6Leaves with midrib warty on lower surface and mostly with 3–5 pairs of secondary veins; small hairy domatia sometimes presentEndiandra muelleri
Leaves with smooth midrib on lower surface and with 6–9 pairs of secondary veins; domatia usually absent
                       Back to 5
7
7Length to breadth ratio mostly less than 2.5:1; leaves turning black when dried; fruit globose; flowers 4-merousEndiandra globosa
Length to breadth ratio more than 2.5:1; leaves green or brown when dried; fruit oblong or ovoid; flowers 3-merous
                       Back to 6
8
8Perianth segments hairy; fruit 2–3 cm long, black when ripeEndiandra muelleri
Perianth segments glabrous; fruit 5–10 cm long, red to purplish black when ripe
                       Back to 7
Endiandra floydii
9Leaves with 7–10 pairs of secondary veins; both surfaces of lamina dull and hairy; minute domatia sometimes presentEndiandra hayesii
Leaves with 4–7 pairs of secondary veins; upper surface of lamina glabrous or almost so and more or less glossy, lower surface dull and hairy; domatia usually absent
                       Back to 2
10
10Reticulum finely and evenly areolate; branchlets conspicuously ribbedEndiandra muelleri
Reticulum areolate, relatively coarse with 2 levels of pattern obvious; branchlets not conspicuously ribbed
                       Back to 9
Endiandra pubens
11Large raised domatia present on lower surface of leavesEndiandra discolor
Large raised domatia absent, small flat domatia sometimes present
                       Back to 1
12
12Veins on lower surface of leaves hairy; fine reticulum distinct on both surfaces, finely areolate; leaves with length to breadth ratio of less than 2.5:1; anther dehiscence extrorseEndiandra crassiflora
Veins on undersurface of leaves glabrous; reticulum obscure on both surfaces, not areolate; leaves with length to breadth ratio of more than 2.5:1; anther dehiscence introrse
                       Back to 11
Endiandra introrsa

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