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Genus Euphrasia Family Scrophulariaceae

Synonyms: Anagosperma APNI*
Siphonidium APNI*

Description: Semiparasitic annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, rootlets often connected to those of other plants by haustoria.

Leaves opposite and decussate, lower surface with sessile glands, margins usually toothed or crenate.

Inflorescences terminal spike-like racemes [or rarely flowers solitary]; bracts leaf-like. Calyx 4-lobed, median clefts longer or equal to the lateral clefts. Corolla 2-lipped, upper lip hooded, with 2 recurved lobes, lower lip with 3 spreading lobes. Stamens 4, didynamous; anthers either forming a U-configuration by fusion along the margins, or with the upper pair free from each other, dehiscing by slits [or rarely free and glabrous, usually awned. Ovary 2-locular, stigma unequally 2-lobed.

Capsule loculicidal; seeds many, obliquely ellipsoid, longitudinally ribbed, scalariform between.


Photo © ANBG

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 200 species, northern & southern temperate regions, Malaysia. Australia: c. 20 species (endemic), all States except N.T.

Text by W. R. Barker
Taxon concept:

Taxa not yet included in identification key
Euphrasia ruptura

 Key to the species 
1Annuals2
Perennials7
2Corolla yellow3
Corolla lilac or white
                       Back to 1
4
3Upper leaves entire or with 1 pair of teethEuphrasia orthocheila
3Upper leaves usually with 2 or 3 pairs of teethEuphrasia scabra
4Stem to base of inflorescence bearing 1–5 pairs of leaves, mature plants less than 12 cm high; corolla white with purple linesEuphrasia alsa
Stem to base of inflorescence bearing more than 5 pairs of leaves, mature plants usually more than 12 cm high; corolla white to pink, not conspicuously lined
                       Back to 2
5
5Calyx (and leaves) glandular-hairy; corolla lobes emarginate with margins glabrousEuphrasia caudata
Calyx non-glandular-scabrous; corolla lobes rounded to acute, non-glandular, finely ciliate
                       Back to 4
6
6Leaves immediately below inflorescence, scabrous, with 2–5 pairs of teeth, the largest teeth 1.5–5 mm longEuphrasia arguta
Leaves immediately below inflorescence usually glabrous, with 0–2 pairs of teeth, the largest less than 1.5 mm long
                       Back to 5
Euphrasia ciliolata
7Corolla white, with purple lines; anthers glabrous on backEuphrasia ramulosa
Corolla white to purple, blue or pink, without prominent lines; anthers hairy on back
                       Back to 1
8
8Upper leaves entire or with 1 pair of teeth; confined to sandstone cliffs in the Blue MtnsEuphrasia bowdeniae
Upper leaves with 2 or more pairs of teeth, or if only 1 pair of teeth then confined to coastal sites south from Green Cape
                       Back to 7
9
9Leaves subpetiolate, base long-attenuate; restricted to the McPherson RaEuphrasia bella
Leaves sessile, base cuneate to rounded; widespread from coastal to alpine sites, south from Torrington district
                       Back to 8
Euphrasia collina

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