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Hibbertia coloensis Toelken
Family Dilleniaceae
Hibbertia coloensis Toelken APNI*

Photo © ANBG

Distribution and occurrence:
NSW subdivisions: CC
AVH map***



ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, late spring--summer.

Fruit/seed Capsule enclosed in fleshy calyx 7--10 mm diam., fruit weight 310 mg, 330 seeds per fruit (extra data on seed & pulp characteristics in French 1991).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed, probably wind-dispersed.

Interaction with other organisms Micorrhizal roots (Zomlefer 1994).


Habitat
Habitat Creek edge.

Altitude 800--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1000 mm

Typical local abundance Rare.

Substrate Gravelly clay.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pale green, cream or white, April--October.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 7 mm diam., red, mature December--April.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.

Interaction with other organisms Fruit edible (Cooper & Cooper 1994). Antechinus stuartii eats the flowers (Turner 1982).


Habitat
Habitat Dry hillsides, ridges and steep slopes.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 800--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Rare--occasional.

Vegetation Dry eucalypt forest e.g. with Eucalyptus sieberi, E. piperita, Corymbia eximia, C. gummifera, Banksia serrata.

Substrate Shallow sandy soils, low nutrients, well-drained.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Longevity ? 20--100 years.

Flowers Green or cream, May--September.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 3 mm diam., bright or dark red, mature September--December.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, possibly bird-dispersed. Germination difficult and slow, 3--7 months (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire (at Narrabeen Lake 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Fruit eaten by birds (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Well-drained slopes and banks, sheltered areas, gullies, creek banks (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Altitude 0--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall above 800 mm

Typical local abundance Rare--occasional.

Vegetation Heath and low scrub e.g. Allocasuarina distyla. Moist eucalypt forest e.g. with Syncarpia glomulifera, Allocasuarina torulosa, Angophora costata. Warm temperate rainforest and rainforest/open-forest ecotone (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Substrate Poor sandy soils from sandstone, shale, low nutrients. Sometimes rocky areas, very well drained (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Exposure Sheltered, mid--deep shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Green, July--September.

Fruit/seed Flat-topped succulent fruit (drupe), 3 mm diam., creamy green, mature December.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diasore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Rocky hillsides.

Altitude 400--600 m                                      Annual rainfall 600--700 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--rare.

Vegetation Dry eucalypt woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus crebra, E. tenella, E. rossii; forest e.g. with Angophora floribunda, Eucalyptus punctata, Brachychiton populneus.

Substrate Sandy soils from sandstone colluvium, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pale green or whitish, August--September.

Fruit/seed Flat-topped succulent fruit (drupe), 4.5 mm diam., January.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Woodland and grassland.

Altitude 800--1300 m                                      Annual rainfall 800--1000 mm

Typical local abundance Rare--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus dives, E. dalrympleana.

Substrate Sandy loams, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Flowers Red, often hidden in foliage, December--September.

Fruit/seed Slightly succulent fruit, (drupe), 5--6 mm long, reddish, mature mainly July--October.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.

Interaction with other organisms Possibly foodplant of moth larvae Poecilasthena pulchraria (Common 1990).


Habitat
Habitat Dry woodland on sandy clay soils.

Altitude 0--800 m                                      Annual rainfall above 700 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt grassy open-forest, and woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus fibrosa, E. sideroxylon, E. macrorrhyncha, E. punctata, Angophora bakeri.

Substrate Often on medium nutrient clay soils e.g. Wianamatta Shale but also on Tertiary alluvium, conglomerates, sandstones. Recorded on saline soils in the Lower Boro area, Southern Tablelands (Kodela & Foster 1990).

Exposure Full sun--light shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Solitary, often appearing clustered at base of branches, March--October, peak August.

Fruit/seed Slightly succulent fruit (drupe), 10--15 mm long, September--October.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Ridges and slopes.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Heath e.g. with Allocasuarina distyla, Banksia ericifolia; eucalypt woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus sieberi, E. globoidea, Angophora costata.

Substrate Sandy loam over sandstone, possibly with clay influence, infertile, well-drained.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No (McIntyre et al. 1995).

Longevity Indefinite.

Flowers Cream, August--December.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 25 mg fresh wt. average (J. Howell pers. comm.), 3--4 mm diameter, green--yellow brown, mature November--December.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, both vertebrate and ant-adapted dispersal (Rice & Westoby 1981, Westoby et al. 1990).

Fire response Resprouts from ground level or below (Benson 1981, Fox 1988). Resprouting plants flowering within 10 months of high intensity fire (at Narrabeen Lake & Lane Cove River 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.). Seedlings recorded less than 1 year after fire (Purdie 1977).


Habitat
Habitat Dry forest on poor soils.

Altitude 0--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall above 700 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt open-forest, woodland, heath. Margin of upland mire (Kodela 1992).

Substrate Low nutrient sandy soils on sandstone, quartzite, sand deposits e.g. at Agnes Banks, Elderslie.

Exposure Mid-shade--full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Flowers White or pink, tubular 5--8 mm long, July--December, peak September, continuing until December in Blue Mountains.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 3--5 mm diam., with pale brown seeds less than 1 mm long, September--December, sporadic March--August (Brown & Streiber 1999).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed, probably wind-dispersed. Dispersed by gravity, water, wind (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River & Narrabeen Lake 1/1994), seedlings reported after fire (P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Root association with Ascomycete and Basidiomycete micorrhizas, possibly seasonal (Allen et al. 1989).


Habitat
Habitat Lithophyte on sandstone rock ledges and wet cliff faces. Sometimes on clay banks and rarely on tree fern trunks (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Altitude 0--1100 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation With sandstone scrub or other moist site species e.g. Bauera rubioides, Leucopogon lanceolatus, Epacris longiflora, Epacris crassifolia , Tristaniopsis collina, Banksia serrata; warm temperate rainforest on poorer soils, M. Robinson, A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Substrate Sandstone rock ledges and wet cliff faces, very low-nutrient sites, moisture supply permanent. On very well-drained rocks or cliffs (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.), also recorded on shale (Brown & Streiber 1999).

Exposure Sheltered rock faces and ledges in gorges and valleys (Brown & Streiber 1999), deep--mid shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, November--March.

Fruit/seed Capsule 1.8 mm long, mature at any time of year but mostly summer.


Habitat
Habitat Swamps and damp places.

Altitude 1000--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 1000--1100 mm

Typical local abundance Rare.

Vegetation Swamps, creekbanks, closed heath e.g. with Leptospermum; open-forest e.g. with Eucalyptus fastigata, E. dalrympleana, E. viminalis.

Substrate Alluvial soil.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White--cream-green, at any time of year, mainly August--December (Harden 1992).

Fruit/seed Capsule 2.5--3 mm long, with seeds 0.58 x 0.39 mm (Powell & James 1993).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Cliffs and rocky areas.

Altitude 0--800 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Margins of eucalypt forest e.g. with Eucalyptus radiata, E. piperita, E. globoidea.

Substrate Skeletal sandy soils, from sandstone or shale bands.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Tubes pink--red and lobes white or cream, August--September.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2.5--3 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Rocky areas, cliffs and waterfalls.

Altitude 300--600 m                                      Annual rainfall 1000--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt forest e.g. with Eucalyptus sieberi, Bauera rubioides, Gleichenia dicarpa.

Substrate Gravelly soils over sandstone, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity More than 50 years (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Flowers White or cream, inconspicuous, July--December, peak September--October.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 1.4 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed, dispersed by wind or gravity (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Fire response Probably killed (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Sandstone cliffs and rock crevices.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Cliff vegetation e.g. with Epacris longiflora, Dracophyllum secundum, Leucopogon amplexicaulis, or drier shrubs e.g. with Acacia amoena, Banksia ericifolia, Banksia serrata. Eucalypt open-forest e.g. Eucalyptus piperita, Angophora costata, Eucalyptus gummifera, E. sieberi (Keith 1994), Tristaniopsis collina, Hakea salicifolia, and in stunted temperate rainforest on rock ledges e.g. with Eucryphia moorei, Ceratopetalum apetalum (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Substrate Skeletal sandy soils on sandstone, low nutrient. Exceptionally well-drained, moisture permanent/intermittent (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Exposure Very exposed--sheltered, full sun--full shade (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Flowers White--cream, November--January.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2--3 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore seed, soil-stored seedbank

Fire response Killed, germination within 5 months of high intensity fire (at Bantry Bay 12/1991, L.McD.).


Habitat
Habitat On dry or wet rock ledges in gullies and on cliffs.

Altitude 0--1100 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Cliff lines associated with Geichenia rupestris, Sprengelia sp., Leucopogon amplexicaulis.

Substrate Skeletal sandy soils on sandstone, low nutrients, permanent moisture.

Exposure Sheltered.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, October--December.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2--3 mm diam.


Habitat
Habitat Cliff faces, near falls.

Altitude 500--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1400 mm

Vegetation Moist cliff vdegetation e.g. with Gleichenia rupestris, Empodisma minus, Baeckea linifolia.

Substrate Rock crevices on sandstone, low nutrients, moist.

Exposure Sheltered.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pink--white, March--October, peak August.


Habitat
Habitat Hillsides, ridgetops.

Altitude 0--1100 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Heath e.g. with Banksia ericifolia, Eucalyptus stricta; woodland with Eucalyptus punctata, E. tenellus; open-forest e.g. with Angophora costata, Eucalyptus haemastoma, E. dalrympleana, E. dives, E. pauciflorum.

Substrate Sandy to clay soil on sandstone, granite, low nutrients, poorly-drained.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, July, October--November; possibly pollinated by Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Cohn 1992).

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2 mm long, mature November--January (Cohn 1992).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Rock ledges, moist gullies, cliff overhangs.

Altitude 800--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1100--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Rare.

Vegetation Warm rainforest margin e.g. with Todea barbara, GBleichenia rupestris, Bauera rubioides, Blechnum wattsii, Cyathea australis, Epacris longiflora (Cohn c. 1992); rainforest e.g. Ceratopetalum, Sassafras; scrub.

Substrate Skeletal sandy soils from Narrabeen Sandstone, among sheltered damp rocks, low nutrients.

Exposure Sheltered sites, mid--deep shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Creamish-white, November--December.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2--3 mm diam.


Habitat
Habitat In crevices on rock faces, base of cliffs.

Altitude 700--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1400 mm

Substrate Sandstone rock faces.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 5--20 years.

Flowers Red with white lobes, or white, at any time of year, peak June--October.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 3--4 mm long, , seed size 0.74 x 0.5 mm (Powell & James 1993), average seed weight 0.10--0.15 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed, no special dispersal morphology (Westoby et al. 1990). Soil-stored seedbank

Fire response Killed, regenerates from soil-stored seed. Seedlings reported after a low intensity burn (Bradley 1972) and after high intensity fire 1/94 (at Lane Cove, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Weed growth at base of plant in cultivation can cause sweating resulting in death of plant (Jones & Elliot 1986).


Habitat
Habitat Sheltered seepage areas in rocky outcrops, headlands.

Altitude 0--760 m                                      Annual rainfall 1000--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation In wet heath e.g. with Darwinia fascicularis, Melaleuca nodosa, Kunzea ambigua, Acacia longifolia, Allocasuarina distyla; eucalypt forest and woodland e.g. with Corymbia gummifera, Eucalyptus piperita, Angophora costata, Eucalyptus sieberi; moist cliff vegetation e.g. with Dracophyllum secundum, Todea barbara.

Substrate Sandy soil, often on sandstone outcrops along seepage lines, low nutrients.

Exposure Sheltered, mid-shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 5--20 years (D. Keith pers. comm.).

Primary juvenile period 5 years (Keith 1996).

Flowers White, at any time of year.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2 mm long, average seed weight 0.03 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed, no special dispersal morphology (Westoby et al 1990). Soil-stored seedbank. Recruitment mainly after fire (D. Keith pers. comm.).

Fire response Killed (Morrison et al. 1995), killed by fire, seedlings noted after high intensity fire (at Lane Cove & Narrabeen Lake 1/1994), flowering within 2 years (P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Shoot damage by rabbits but not eaten (P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Heath--woodland on poor soils.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Dry eucalypt forest e.g. with Eucalyptus haemastoma; heath e.g. with Banksia spinulosa, Banksia serrata, Acacia myrtifolia, Acacia suaveolens.

Substrate Sandy soils, with clay influence? on sandstone, low-nutrients, periodically wet.

Exposure LIght shade--full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, October--March.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2 mm long, March--June.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Rock crevices, creekbanks.

Altitude 600--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Sphagnum bog, shrub swamp.

Substrate Rocky creek banks, sandstone crevices, peaty bog on granite, low nutrients, permanent moisture.

Exposure ? Full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White or cream, October--December.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2 mm long, mature March--May.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Damp rock faces, rock crevices, cliffs.

Altitude 600--1100 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Cliffline vegetation e.g. with Dracophyllum secundum, and shrub/heath vegetation e.g. with Leptospermum arachnoides, Allocasuarina nana, Leptospermum macrocarpum, Eucalyptus oreades.

Substrate Damp sandstone rocks, ‘pagoda’ rock formations, skeletal soils, low nutrients.

Exposure Sheltered places.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 10--20 years.

Primary juvenile period 3 years (Keith 1996).

Flowers Cream--white, July--January, peak September.

Fruit/seed Capsule 3.5 mm long, average seed weight 0.03 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.), July--January.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed, no special dispersal morphology (Westoby et al 1990), soil-stored seedbank. Non-dormant fraction of total seed crop 15%, minimum temperature for maximum germination ca 60°C , recruitment mainly after fire (D. Keith pers. comm.).

Fire response Killed by fire , recruits from soil-stored seed; seedling noted within 38 weeeks of high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Sedge swamp, moist cliff lines.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Wet heath and sedgeland e.g. with Gleichenia dicarpa, Banksia robur, Lepidosperma limicola, Baeckea linifolia, Empodisma minus, Banksia ericifolia.

Substrate Sandy soil on sandstone, low nutrients, poorly-drained sites.

Exposure Full sun to light shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity More than 60 years (D. Keith pers. comm.).

Primary juvenile period 5 years (Keith 1996).

Flowers White, June--December, peak October.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 3 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.

Fire response Resprouts, secondary juvenile period 1 year (Keith 1996).


Habitat
Habitat Swamps, bogs and wet heath.

Altitude 0--1100 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Sedge and shrub swamps e.g. with Viminaria juncea, Gleichenia dicarpa, Empodisma minus, Banksia paludosa, Leptospermum lanigerum, Baeckea utilis, Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus.

Substrate Peaty to sandy soils on sandstone, quartzite, low nutrients, permanently moist.

Exposure ? full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, January--February.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2--3 mm diam.


Habitat
Habitat Cliff faces.

Altitude 600--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Cliff vegetation e.g. with Dracophyllum secundum, Allania sp.

Substrate Silty banks and seepage fissures on sandstone, low nutrients, permanently wet.

Exposure Shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 10--20 years.

Primary juvenile period 3--6 years.

Flowers White--pink, November--June, peak January--April.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2 mm long, average seed weight 0.07 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed, no special dispersal morphology (Westoby et al. 1990).

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River & Narrabeen Lake 1/1994), some plants flowering within 2 years 8 months and fruiting within 2 years 11 months of moderate intensity September fire (at Lane Cove River, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Hillsides, ridgetops, rock crevices.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1000--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Woodland and heath e.g. with mallee eucalypts Eucalyptus stricta, E. apiculata, E. haemastoma and shrubs e.g. Leptospermum trinervium, Angophora hispida, Allocasuarina littoralis, Banksia ericifolia.

Substrate Sandy, skeletal soils from sandstone, low nutrient soils.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pink--white, October--November, peak October.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2.5 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Cliffs, hillsides, riverbanks.

Altitude 100--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--rare.

Vegetation Moist eucalypt open-forest e.g with Banksia ericifolia, Leptospermum polygalifolium, Hakea dactyloides; cliff vegetation e.g. with Gleichenia rupestris, Blechnum ambiguum, Callicoma serratifolia, Dracophyllum secundum; heath e.g. with Banksia ericifolia, Allocasuarina nana.

Substrate Deep alluvial sand or sandy soil over sandstone, quartzite, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 5--20 years.

Flowers Pink--white, June--October, peak August.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2 mm long, October.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Open forest, scrub and swamp.

Altitude 0--200 m                                      Annual rainfall above 1000 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--rare.

Vegetation Open-forest e.g. with Eucalyptus pilularis, E. saligna, Syncarpia glomulifera; woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus sclerophylla, E. sparsifolia; scrub e.g. with Melaleuca thymifolia, Melaleuca decora.

Substrate Clay soils on shale, shale/sandstone transition and sandstone, medium nutrients, periodically poorly-drained.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pink--red, June--December, peak October.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Damp sandstone cliff faces and rock ledges.

Altitude 600--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 800--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional.

Vegetation Damp ledges e.g. with Callicoma serratifolia, Gleichenia rupestris, Todea barbara, Dracophyllum secundum; moist forest/rainforest e.g. with Eucalyptus oreades.

Substrate Skeletal sandy soil among sandstone rocks e.g. Pagoda rock formations of Newnes Plateau, low nutrients, permanent moisture.

Exposure Mid shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White or cream, mostly August--September.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 1.5 mm long.

Fire response Resprouts from basal lignotuber (Herb. note).


Habitat
Habitat Heath on sandstone.

Altitude 300--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Exposed open-heath e.g. with Eucalyptus stricta, E. ligustrina, Banksia ericifolia, Banksia serrata.

Substrate Skeletal sandy soils from sandstone, low nutrients.

Exposure Full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Cream, sweet-scented, August--December.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2.5 mm long.


Habitat
Altitude 800 m                                      Annual rainfall 950 mm


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Cream, May--September, peak May.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 1.4--1.8 mm high, seeds 0.8 mm long (Powell & James 1993), mature September.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.

Fire response Young plants growing from woody rootstock reported, suggesting capacity to resprout after fire or flooding.


Habitat
Habitat Base of rock faces or on rock platforms in the riparian flood zone.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 800--900 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional--rare.

Vegetation Shady ground cover e.g. with Sticherus, Lomandra montana, Lomandra fluviatilis with canopy of Tristaniopsis laurina, Backhousia myrtifolia, Ceratopetalum apetalum.

Substrate Damp low nutrient, sandy/clay soil derived from exposed shale lenses between Hawkesbury Sandstone beds. Sites frequently subject to high moisture from wind-driven spray and would be inundated during periods of high rainfall (Powell & James 1993).

Exposure Mid--deep shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 20--30 years. Abundant in some areas remaining unburnt for long periods.

Flowers Terminal, white, July--October, peak August--September.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), average fresh weight 5--6 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.), 3.5 mm long, mature September--December.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, with semi-fleshy layer plus tiny ‘skirt’ (J. Howell pers. comm.). Possibly a myrmecochore (Rice & Westoby 1981), soil-stored seed.

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire (at Narrabeen Lake 1/1994), a few seedlings seen 10--12 cm high within 16 months of high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Sheltered sites on rock outcrops and lower hillslopes.

Altitude 0--500 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt woodland e.g. with Angophora costata, Eucalyptus gummifera, Eucalyptus piperita, Bauera rubioides, Banksia ericifolia, Gleichenia; scrub e.g. with Kunzea ambigua, Angophora hispida, Banksia ericifolia.

Substrate Shady wet sandstone rock faces on Hawkesbury Sandstone, low nutrients, permanent seepage.

Exposure Sheltered aspects, mid--light shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, inconspicuous, December--February, peak February. Flowers visited by Exoneura bees, and ants (Herb. note).

Fruit/seed Dry seed with elaiosome, 1.6 mm long, average seed weight 0.65 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed, ant-adapted food body for dispersal (Westoby et al 1990, Rice & Westoby 1981)

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River & Narrabeen Lake 1/1994), a few seedlings seen within 19 months (at Lane Cove, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Shrubby forest on sandstone, rocky outcrops.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Heath e.g. with Leptospermum trinervium, Hakea propinqua, Banksia ericifolia; woodland e.g. with Corymbia gummifera, Angophora costata, Allocasuarina littoralis.

Substrate Skeletal sandy soil between sandstone rocks, low nutrients, well-drained.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, May--December, mainly August--November.

Fruit/seed Fleshy fruit 2--3 mm long.


Habitat
Habitat Rock platforms.

Altitude 800--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1000 mm

Typical local abundance Rare.

Vegetation Low heath e.g. with Baeckea brevifolia.

Substrate Sandy loam on granite, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, March--May.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 2--2.3 mm long.


Habitat
Altitude 0--100 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200 mm

Vegetation Coastal dry sandplain heath.

Substrate Deep sand.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 5--20 years.

Flowers White--pinkish, July--October, peak August--September.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 5.7 mm long with prominent ridges, turning brown, September--October.

Fire response Killed, re-established from soil-stored seed (at Agnes Banks, Benson 1981). One plant flowering less than 3 years after moderate intensity September fire (at Lane Cove River, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Source of nectar for bees (Clemson 1985).


Habitat
Habitat Ridges, plateaux, hillsides.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 700--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus sclerophylla, Angophora bakeri, Eucalyptus piperita, Banksia serrata, Angophora bakeri; heath, seacliff scrub.

Substrate Deep sand and sandy clay soils from sandstone and Tertiary alluvium. Indurated beach and marine sand near shore (at Bass Point, M. Robinson pers. comm.).

Exposure Full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 5--20 years (D. Keith pers. comm.).

Primary juvenile period May attain flowering maturity in less than 4 years.

Flowers White, August--September, peak September.

Fruit/seed Cylindrical, dry fruit, 4.5 mm long, brown, November--December, average seed weight 8 mg, seed with elaiosome ? (J. Howell pers. comm.).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, ant-adapted food body for dispersal (Westoby et al 1990, Rice & Westoby 1981)

Fire response Killed by fire, recruitment mainly after fire (D. Keith pers. comm.)


Habitat
Habitat Swamp, heath and woodland.

Altitude 0--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Shrub, swamp and damp heath e.g. with Banksia oblongifolia, B. paludosa, B. ericifolia, woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus haemastoma, E. gummifera.

Substrate Skeletal sandy soils on sandstone, low nutrient soils.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, August--September.

Fruit/seed Fruit (drupe), 4.5 mm long, mature October.


Habitat
Habitat Hillsides near creeks.

Altitude 0--100 m                                      Annual rainfall 1000--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Rare.

Vegetation Woodland e.g. with Eucalytus piperita, E. sieberi and shrubs Pultenaea flexilis, Leptospermum trinervium, Dillwynia retorta.

Substrate Sandy alluvium and rocky sandstone hillsides near creeks, low nutrient soils.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, cream or pink-tinged, pendent, September--November (Powell & Robertson 1993).

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 3 mm long, December--February (Powell & Robertson 1993).


Habitat
Habitat Steep slopes.

Altitude 800--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1000 m

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Eucalypt open-forest and woodland e.g with Eucalyptus pauciflora.

Substrate Stony and sandy yellow-brown or orange-brown soils on conglomerates, granite, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, pendent, August--October.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 5 mm long, October--December.

Fire response Probably killed.


Habitat
Habitat Ridges and spurs (NSW TSC Act 1995).

Altitude 0--600 m                                      Annual rainfall 800--1200 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Heath e.g. with Banksia ericifolia, Darwinia biflora, Calytrix tetragona; woodland e.g. with Corymbia eximia, C. gummifera, Eucalyptus haemastoma.

Substrate Clayey lateritic soils of Mittagong Formation, sandstone soils near Wianamatta Shale, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No (McIntyre et al. 1995).

Flowers White, September--November, sometimes March--May.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), yellow, 5 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, adapted for dispersal by ingestion (McIntyre et al. 1995).


Habitat
Habitat Rocky areas, slopes.

Altitude 500--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 600--1000 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus rossii, E. dives; shrubland and heath.

Substrate Shallow sandy soils, on sandstone or granite, low nutrients, often poorly drained.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Flowers White, May--October.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), average fresh weight 22 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.), ovoid--ellipsoid, 4 mm long, yellow at maturity August--January,

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, both vertebrate and ant-adapted dispersal (Westoby et al 1990). Coloniser of disturbed sites. Mycorrhizas possibly assist breakdown of woody seed coat and establishment of seedling, but presence not related to nitrogen status of plant (Reed 1989).

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Can tolerate Casuarina allelopathy, possibly assisted by mycorrhizal association (Reed 1989). Foodplant of moth larvae Poecilasthena pulchraria (Common 1990).


Habitat
Habitat Forest and open areas.

Altitude 0--300 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1200 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Moist eucalypt open-forest e.g. with Eucalyptus saligna, E. pilularis, Syncarpia glomulifera; drier open-forest e.g. with E. tereticornis, E. maculata, E. crebra, Bursaria spinosa, and woodland with Eucalyptus eugenioides, E. longifolia, open shrubland of Melaleuca armillaris on ridgetop (M. Robinson pers. comm.).

Substrate Clay soils particularly from Wianamatta Shale. On Berry siltstone/Budgong Sandstone/Bombo Latite Member in Illawarra (M. Robinson pers. comm.). Medium nutrients, well-drained.

Exposure Light shade--full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity More than 25 years (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Flowers White, May--October, peak September., fragrant.

Fruit/seed Succulent red or yellowish fruit (drupe), average fresh weight 32 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.), 3 mm long, red at maturity, August--March.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, both vertebrate (probably bird) and ant-adapted dispersal (Westoby et al 1990). Germination slow, 6--18 months, slow-growing (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Fire response Resprouts from ground level, after high intensity fire (at Katandra 1/1994, L.McD.), resprouting plants flowering within 20 months (at Lane Cove, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Fruit and seeds rapidly removed from soil surface after fire by ants and may be prone to predation (French & Westoby 1996).


Habitat
Habitat Open-forest, rainforest on poor sandy soil.

Altitude 0--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall abvoe 900 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Moist to dry eucalypt forests e.g. with Eucalyptus saligna, E. pilularis, E. sieberi, Syncarpia glomulifera, Angophora floribunda, tall open-forest/rainforest ecotone. Warm temperate rainforest on poorer sandy soils (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.). Margin of upland mire (Kodela 1992).

Substrate Most types of soil, often with some clay on sandstone, Wianamatta Shale, Basalt; Beach sands in Illawarra (A. Bofeldt, M. Robinson pers. comm.) low--high nutrient soil, well-drained.

Exposure Mid-shade (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Flowers February--June.

Fruit/seed Fruit (drupe), 3--4 mm long, green with a white fleshy base.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Swamp margins.

Altitude 0--100 m                                      Annual rainfall above 1200 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional.

Vegetation Coastal heath, dry eucalypt forest e.g. with Eucalyptus robusta, Banksia collina.

Substrate Sandy soil, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 5--20 years (D. Keith pers. comm.).

Primary juvenile period May attain flowering maturity in 4--5 years (Benson 1985).

Flowers White, at any time of year, but mainly July--October.

Fruit/seed Dry fruit with flaky coat attractive to ants, 1--2 embryos per fruit, average weight 0.7 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.), 1.2--1.5 mm long, mainly August--October.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Ant-adapted food body for dispersal (Westoby et al. 1990).

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire, seedlings flowering within 2 years (at Lane Cove River & Narrabeen Lake 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.). Regrowth from rootstock reported by B. Wiecek at Kenthurst (5/1993). Regenerates from soil-stored seed, seedlings 2 years after fire.


Habitat
Habitat Ridges and hillsides.

Altitude 0--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Heath e.g. with Banksia ericifolia, Allocasuarina nana, Allocasuarina distyla and dry sclerophyll forest e.g. Eucalyptus gummifera, E. piperita, E. eximia.

Substrate Sandy soil on sandstone, quartzite, low nutrient.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, August--October.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 1.2--1.5 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Upper slopes, ridges, rocky creek banks.

Altitude 800--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 800--1000 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Open-forest and woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus rossii, E. sparsifolia, E. dives, E. goniocalyx, E. piperita.

Substrate Clayey--sandy soil on conglomerate, sandstones, shales.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Longevity Medium.

Flowers White, scented, July--October, peak September.

Fruit/seed Black, succulent fruit (drupe), 3.0--4.5 mm long, black, October--January, peak December.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.

Fire response May resprout after low or medium intensity fires, flowering in winter following such fires (R. Lembit pers comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Upper slopes and ridges.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 700--1000 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--dominant.

Vegetation Dry sclerophyll forest e.g. with Eucalyptus eximia, Eucalyptus punctata, Angophora bakeri, Corymbia gummifera, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Angophora costata, Eucalyptus sparsifolia, E. rossii.

Substrate Skeletal sandy soil on sandstone. Could be indicator of clay influence?

Exposure Frequent species, and widespread on drier parts of sandstone plateau.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, March--October.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 3 mm long, reddish brown to grey brown.


Habitat
Altitude 0--600 m                                      Annual rainfall above 900 mm

Substrate Peaty soil, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 20--100 years (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Flowers White, fragrant, July--October, peak August.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit, fruit white/pale green, edible, sweet, 5 mm long (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, bird-dispersed, slow to germinate 6--18 months, slow-growing, coloniser of sand dunes (A. Bofeldt, M. Robinson pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Mycorrhizal association with roots, likely to assist nutrition (Logan et al. 1989). Foodplant of Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae (Barker & Vestjens 1989, 1990).


Habitat
Habitat Coastal sand dunes.

Altitude 0--50 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional--frequent.

Vegetation Dune scrub e.g. with Acacia sophorae, and low open-forest behind beach e.g. with Eucalyptus pilularis, E. gummifera, Angophora costata.

Substrate Dune sand or less commonly on sandstone, low nutrient, well-drained. Moisture intermittent (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Exposure Very exposed to sheltered, full sun--mid shade (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, October--February.

Fruit/seed Fleshy fruit 2 mm long.


Habitat
Habitat Swamps.

Altitude 800--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1000 mm

Vegetation Shrubswamp e.g. with Empodisma minus, Restio australis.

Substrate Peaty soils, low nutrients, permanently moist.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, pendent, July--October, peak August--September.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 4.2 mm long, yellow--green at maturity, October--December.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, adapted for ant-dispersal (Rice & Westoby 1981)

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire, no seedlings seen (at Lane Cove River & Narrabeen Lake 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Shrubby woodland on sandstone.

Altitude 0--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall above 900 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Shrubby woodland and forest e.g with Eucalyptus gummifera, E. eximia, E. piperita, Angophora costata.

Substrate Sandy loam or shallow peaty soil, sandstone, low nutrient soils.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, in spikes, July--December, peak September--October.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 2.3 mm long, mature October--November.

Fire response Resprouts from ground level or below (Benson 1981, Fox 1988). No seedlings recorded within 1 year after fire (Purdie 1977).


Habitat
Habitat Ridges, hillsides, sand dunes.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 700--1200 m

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Woodland e.g. with Angophora floribunda, A. bakeri, Eucalyptus sclerophylla, E. parramattensis, Banksia serrata, Eucalyptus rossii, E. dalrympleana, E. dives; heath e.g. with Brachyloma daphnoides, Acacia suaveolens, Leptospermum laevigatum, Acacia sophorae, Philotheca salsolifolia.

Substrate Sandy soil from sandstone, slates, Devonian metasediments, dune sand, very low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Creamy white, March--September.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 6.0 mm long, red, mature June--February.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Ridges, hillsides, rocky ledges, sometimes along creeks.

Altitude 0--800 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1200 mm

Typical local abundance Rare--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt open-forest e.g. with Eucalyptus gummifera, E. eximia, Angophora costata, Syncarpia glomulifera, Allocasuarina torulosa.

Substrate Sandy soil on sandstone, or shale/sandstone transition, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, August--October.

Fruit/seed Fleshy fruit 3 mm long.


Habitat
Altitude 0--100 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200 mm


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No vegetative spread.

Longevity Long.

Flowers White--pink, July--September, peak August--September.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 3 mm long, sweet tasting when ripe Cribb (1975), matures September--November and drops.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, adapted for dispersal by ingestion (McIntyre et al. 1995).

Fire response Resprouts from base after high intensity fire (Narrabeen Lake 1/1994), one plant flowering within 9 months (P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Low-lying, flatter sites.

Altitude 0--300 m                                      Annual rainfall 700--1000

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Open-forest and woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus fibrosa, Angophora bakeri, Melaleuca decora, Eucalyptus longifolia, E. sideroxylon, E. parramattensis.

Substrate Tertiary alluvium, Wianamatta Shale, and less commonly on sandstone. Fine light yellow-grey or orange-brown clayey soils that are probably subjected to periodic inundation, poorly-drained (Powell 1994). Where growing together, L. strigosa subsp. strigosa occupies fine claysoils on ridgetops, while L. strigosa subsp. subulata is on rocky slopes.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No vegetative spread.

Longevity long

Flowers White--pink, July--October, peak August--September.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 3 mm long, edible, sweet tasting when ripe Cribb (1975), matures October--December and drops.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, adapted for dispersal by ingestion (McIntyre et al. 1995).

Fire response Resprouts from base.


Habitat
Habitat Rocky ridges, stony slopes (Powell 1994)

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall above 600 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional--frequent.

Vegetation Open-forest and woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus eximia, Corymbia gummifera, E. punctata, Angophora bakeri, A. costata; scrub e.g. with Kunzea ambigua, Banksia serrata, Acacia myrtifolia.

Substrate Skeletal sandy loam over sandstone, well-drained low nutrients, also loamy and clayey soils over sedimentary and igneous rocks (Powell & Wiecek 1994).


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pink--deep red, February--October.

Fruit/seed Succulent, ribbed fruit (drupe), 5 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Sandstone pagodas and slopes.

Altitude 800--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1000 mm

Typical local abundance Rare.

Vegetation Scrub e.g. with Hakea, Banksia , or eucalypt woodland.

Substrate Shallow alluvial sand over sandstone, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Cream or pale green with pink-tinged lobes, May--October, peak September.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), mature August--November.

Fire response Resprouts from ground level or below (Fox 1988).


Habitat
Habitat Plateaus.

Altitude 0--700 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Rare--frequent.

Vegetation Eucalypt forest e.g. with Eucalyptus gummifera, E. punctata, Angophora bakeri, heath e.g. with Angophora hispida, Banksia ericifolia.

Substrate Low-nutrient sandstone soils, deep sandy loam, well-drained.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No (McIntyre et al. 1995).

Flowers White, cream or yellow-green, March--November.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 4 mm long, greenish white or purple-brown, July--November.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, adaptation for dispersal by ingestion (McIntyre et al. 1995).

Fire response Regrowth from surviving rootstocks, no seedlings recorded less than 1 year after fire (Purdie 1977).

Interaction with other organisms Flowers eaten by Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans (Lepschi 1993).


Habitat
Habitat Steep slopes, hillsides.

Altitude 0--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall 700--1000 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional--frequent.

Vegetation Eucalypt woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus eximia, E. gummifera, E. sclerophylla, E. sparsifolia, E. rossii, E. macrorhyncha, E. dives, E. mannifera, Callitris woodland and Acacia scrub.

Substrate Sandy or loamy soils on sandstone, acid volcanics, shaley soils, sometimes on disturbed sites.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity Long-lived, more than 100 years. Some near Moore Park pre-date Centennial Park (M. Reed pers. comm.).

Flowers White--cream, July--October, peak August.

Fruit/seed Fleshy fruit (drupe), 3--4 mm long, orange or red, August--November.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, probably bird-dispersed. Seedlings appear to establish in areas long unburnt. Germination slow and difficult, slow-growing (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Fire response Resprouts from epicormic shoots (at La Perouse), though survival may be patchy. Most of population killed by high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River 1/1994), a few resprouting, no seedlings seen (P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Fruit eaten by Noisy Miners. Foodplant of butterfly larva Neolucia mathewi (Common & Waterhouse 1982).


Habitat
Habitat Headlandss, sand dunes, creekbanks.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1100--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt open-forest e.g. with Eucalyptus robusta, Angophora costata, Eucalyptus botryoides, low-forest and cliff-top scrub e.g. with Acmena smithii, Banksia integrifolia, Elaeocarpus reticulatus, Leptospermum laevigatum; riparian thicket e.g. with Tristaniopsis laurina, Backhousia salignus, Lomatia myricoides.

Substrate Coastal sand dunes, sandy soil over sandstone, low nutrients, well-drained.

Exposure Light shade (M. Robinson pers. comm.).


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, May (1 record).

Fruit/seed Fleshy, ribbed fruit (drupe), 2.8 mm long, mature July--November.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Rocky areas, cliff edges, along creeks.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Rare--frequent.

Vegetation Scrub or shrubland with mallees e.g. Eucalyptus stricta, E. obtusifolia, Allocasuarina nana, Kunzea capitata; riparian scrub with Tristaniopsis laurina, Hakea salicifolia, woodland.

Substrate Shallow soil on sandstone, very low nutrients, watertable mostly low.

Exposure Exposed sites.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No (McIntyre et al. 1995).

Longevity Medium--long.

Flowers White, March--July, peak April--May. Large-flowered plants visited by introduced bee, small-flowered plants by by little black native bee (I. Bowden Herbarium note).

Fruit/seed Fleshy fruit (drupe), average fresh weight 7 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.), 3 mm long, yellow--orange, mature December--June.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit, adapted for dispersal by ingestion (McIntyre et al. 1995), both vertebrate and ant-adapted dispersal (Westoby et al 1990). Myrmecochore (Rice & Westoby 1981).

Fire response Stems killed, regenerates from basal sprouts (e.g. at Agnes Banks (Benson 1981), after high-intensity fire at Katandra 1/1994, L.McD.). No seedlings recorded less than 1 year after fire (Purdie 1977). A few resprouting plants flowering within 17 months of high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River & Narrabeen Lake 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Foodplant of butterfly larva Neolucia mathewi (Common & Waterhouse 1982) and moth larvae Poecilasthena pulchraria (Common 1990). Low palatability, mortality unaffected by grazing after fire (Leigh & Holgate 1979).


Habitat
Habitat Ridges, hillslopes.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 700--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt forest, woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus piperita, E. sieberi, E. blaxlandii, E. oreades, E. dalrympleana, E. pauciflora, E. rossii, Corymbia eximia, Angophora costata, Eucalyptus agglomerata, and occasionally heath.

Substrate Sandy loam soil, over sandstone, conglomerate, sand dunes, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, October--March, peak October--November.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 1.5 mm long, with many seeds, mature December.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat On rock ledges.

Altitude 850--1000 m.                                      Annual rainfall 1100--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Rock ledge vegetation e.g. with Geichenia rupestris, Epacris reclinata, E. crassifolia, Sprengelia monticola.

Substrate On rock ledges, low nutrient sandstone, permanently wet, receiving drips from steep cliffs above and seepage.

Exposure Mid shade.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White or cream, October--December, peak November.

Fruit/seed Capsule 2.5 mm long, with many seeds, mature December--January.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Rock crevices, rock ledges and beneath cliff overhangs.

Altitude 400--900 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1200 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Rock ledge vegetation with e.g. Acrophyllum australe, Gleichenia rupestris, in open-forest with Eucalyptus piperita, E. gummifera, E. agglomerata.

Substrate Crevices and shallow benches on sandstone cliffs, low nutrient.

Exposure Sheltered.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White or cream, July--December.

Fruit/seed Hairy capsule, 2.2 mm long, with many seeds, mature July.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Cliff faces, ledges, and at base of cliffs.

Altitude 550--950 m                                      Annual rainfall 600--1000 mm

Typical local abundance Rare.

Vegetation Cliff line vegetation e.g. with Gleichenia rupestris, Epacris reclinata, Todea barbara.

Substrate Skeletal soil in rock crevices and base of sandstone cliffs, low nutrient, moist.

Exposure South to north-west aspects, sheltered.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, at any time, peak November--December.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2 mm long, with many seeds.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Sandstone ledges, cliff faces, rocky ground.

Altitude 0--650 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Cliff faces e.g. with Dracophyllum secundum, Hymenophyllum cupressiforme, Platysace lanceolata; open-forest with Eucalyptus punctata, Angophora costata, Eucalyptus seiberi, E. piperita.

Substrate Low nutrient skeletal sandy soils on sandstone, cracks in vertical cliff faces.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Longevity 5--20 years.

Primary juvenile period May attain flowering maturity at 50 cm high in less than 4 years.

Flowers Pink, June--November, peak August--September.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 1.8 mm long, mature September--December.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed. Recruitment mainly after fire, fire temperature more than 60° C for maximum germination, non-dormant fraction of total seed crop 33% (D. Keith pers. comm.).

Fire response Killed by high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River, P. Kubiak pers. comm.), re-establishes from soil-stored seed.


Habitat
Habitat Wet heath on sandstone.

Altitude 0--1200 m                                      Annual rainfall above 1200 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Perennially wet heath or sedgeland e.g. with Gleichenia, Banksia robur, Banksia ericifolia, Hakea teretifolia.

Substrate Sandy loam on sandstone, poorly-drained and permanently moist. Low nutrient.

Exposure Full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, solitary, September--December, peak October.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2 mm diam.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Wet rock faces and ledges or cliff bases.

Altitude 500--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Cliff ledge vegetation e.g. with Todea barbara, Dracophyllum secundum, Gleichenia rupestris, Sticherus tener.

Substrate Lower-nutrient sandstone, wet rock ledges, crevices, with permanent moisture.

Exposure Sheltered sites.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers White, August--September.

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2.5 mm diam., mature November.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: seed.


Habitat
Habitat Swamp

Altitude 0--100 m                                      Annual rainfall above 1100 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Swampy heath e.g. with Banksia robur, Xyris.

Substrate Sandy soil in swamps, poorly-drained, low nutrient.

Exposure Full sun.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pale green, December--February.

Fruit/seed Succulent ridged fruit (drupe), 6--7 mm long.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Rocky outcrop.

Altitude 0--600 m                                      Annual rainfall 900--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Rare.

Vegetation Open-forest.

Substrate Sandstone.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pale yellow-green or red, March--August, peak April.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), to 6--8 mm long, November--December.


Habitat
Habitat Ridges.

Altitude 0--700 m                                      Annual rainfall above 700 mm

Typical local abundance Rare--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt open-forest e.g. with Eucalyptus sideroxylon, E. punctata, E. gummifera, E. eximia, or heath e.g. with Angophora hispida, Banksia oblongifolia, Petrophile sessillis.

Substrate Low-nutrient sandy or sandy-clay lateritic soils on Tertiary alluvium or Hawkesbury Sandstone, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Flowers Pale yellow-green or red, March--July.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), to 8.3 mm long, August--September.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit.


Habitat
Habitat Mainly ridgetop.

Altitude 0--300 m                                      Annual rainfall 800--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent.

Vegetation Eucalypt woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus haemastoma, with shrubby understorey including Proteaceae species, Acacia myrtifolia.

Substrate Deep yellow earth or ironstone ‘lateritic’ soils, or gravelly sandy soils on sandstone plateaus, low nutrient.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Primary juvenile period Less than 4 years (at Bantry Bay after high intensity fire 12/1991, L.McD.)

Flowers Pale green--yellow, March--September, peak June.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 7--8 mm long, mature ? October.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Present in area unburnt for 20 years, possible coloniser (Bradley, 1972). Usually only single plant seen (L.McD.)

Fire response Killed by high-intensity fire (at Bantry Bay 12/1991, Katandra 1/1994 L.McD.).


Habitat
Habitat Ridges.

Altitude 0--100 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt open-forest e.g. with Angophora costata, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Corymbia gummifera, Allocasuarina torulosa.

Substrate Sandy or gravelly soils on sandstone, sandstone--shale transition, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Pink--red or cream or pale yellow-green, mainly April--October, peak September--October.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 6.5--8 mm long, mature August--May.

Fire response Killed (Bantry Bay 1991, L.McD.), a few seedlings seen within 15 months of high intensity fire (at Lane Cove River & Narrabeen Lake 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.).


Habitat
Habitat Sandstone ridge, moist gully.

Altitude 0--1200 mm                                      Annual rainfall 700--1400 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--occasional.

Vegetation Eucalypt forest and woodland e.g. with Angophora costata, Eucalyptus piperita, E. rossii, E. mannifera, E. macrorhyncha, E. dives. Sea cliff-top scrub e.g. with Melaleuca nodosa, Leptospermum laevigatum, Calythrix tetragona.

Substrate Sandy--clayey soils on sandstone, conglomerate, low nutrients.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Red or cream or pale yellow-green, April-August.

Fruit/seed Dry capsule with tiny ‘skirt’ around one end, average fresh weight 19 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.), 5 mm long, mature August--December. Most fruits infertile, germination takes more than 2 years; mycorrhizas possibly assist breakdown of seed coat and establishment of seedling (Reed 1989).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Ant adapted for dispersal (Westoby et al. 1990).

Fire response Killed by high and medium intensity fire (at Lane Cove River), localised seedlings reported after fire (P. Kubiak pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Can tolerate Casuarina allelopathy, possibly assisted by mycorrhizal association (Reed 1989).


Habitat
Habitat Ridges, hillsides.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 1000--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional--frequent.

Vegetation Woodland e.g. with Eucalyptus piperita, E. haemastoma, Corymbia gummifera; heath e.g. with Angophora hispida.

Substrate Low nutrient sandy soils on sandstone, .


ECOLOGY

Life History
Flowers Translucent green, April-August, peak July.

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), 7--10 mm long, mature ? August.

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: fruit. Soil-stored seedbank (Fox 1988).

Fire response Killed by fire (Fox 1988).


Habitat
Altitude 0--100 m                                      Annual rainfall above 1200 mm

Typical local abundance Occasional.

Vegetation Coastal heath e.g. with Banksia serrata, Lambertia formosa, Ricinocarpos pinifolius.

Substrate Old dunes not far from the sea and sandy soil from sandstone, low nutrient soils.


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity Probably long, more than 10 years (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Flowers White, December-January. Not automatically self-pollinated (Adam & Williams 2001).

Fruit/seed Succulent fruit (drupe), average fresh weight 180 mg, with multiple embryos per fruit (J. Howell pers. comm.)., 6--8 mm diam., purple to black, ripening June--September. 40,600 seeds per kg (Floyd 1989).

Dispersal, establishment and growth Diaspore: vertebrate-adapted fleshy fruit (Westoby et al. 1990), bird-dispersed, water-dispersed, germination 6--14 months, low germination rate, very slow-growing especially when young (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.). Germination difficult, may take up to 2 years (Floyd 1989).

Fire response Resprouts from base after high intensity fire (at Narrabeen Lake 1/1994, P. Kubiak pers. comm.), resprouts from stem/branches after low intensity fires (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).

Interaction with other organisms Host to parasitic plant Korthasella rubra (Downey 1998). Host tree for epiphytes e.g. ferns, orchids (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.). Used by Aboriginal people for waddies (Floyd 1989).


Habitat
Habitat Gullies, amongst rocks, creeks, escarpment slopes.

Altitude 0--650 m                                      Annual rainfall 1200--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--rare.

Vegetation Warm temperate, sub-tropical, riverine, and sometimes dry rainforest (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.), moist eucalypt forest e.g. with Eucalyptus saligna, E. pilularis, Ceratopetalum apetalum, Acmena smithii, Syncarpia glomulifera, Backhousia myrtifolia, creek banks.

Substrate Sandy loam to yellow sandy clays from sandstone, shales (Illawarra Coal Measures, Hawkesbury Sandstone, Narrabeen Series in Illawarra, A. Bofeldt pers. comm.), moderate nutrient soils, well-drained.

Exposure Sheltered. Mid-shade, young plants not able to tolerate full sun (A. Bofeldt pers. comm.).


ECOLOGY

Life History
Vegetative spread No.

Longevity 10--20 years. Plants recorded in unburnt bush after 13 years (at Field of Mars).

Primary juvenile period 3--5 years (Benson 1985).

Flowers White--pink, sweetly scented, at any time of year, peak July--August. (Red form at northern coast of Jervis Bay only.)

Fruit/seed Capsule, 2.5 mm diam., with many small seeds, average seed weight 0.2--0.25 mg (J. Howell pers. comm.).

Dispersal, establishment and growth No special dispersal morphology (Westoby et al. 1990), probably wind-dispersed.

Fire response Killed and re-established from soil-stored seed (at Brisbane Water).


Habitat
Habitat Sandstone plateaus, coastal dunes.

Altitude 0--1000 m                                      Annual rainfall 800--1600 mm

Typical local abundance Frequent--abundant.

Vegetation Heath e.g with Banksia serrata, Lambertia formosa, Xanthorrhoea resinifera, and dry eucalypt open-forest e.g. with Eucalyptus piperita, E. haemastoma, E. gummifera.

Substrate Fine silty sand--gravelly soil on sandstone and dunes, low nutrients, well-drained.

Exposure Full sun to light shade.


APNI* Provides a link to the Australian Plant Name Index (hosted by the Australian National Botanic Gardens) for comprehensive bibliographic data
***The AVH map option provides a detailed interactive Australia wide distribution map drawn from collections held by all major Australian herbaria participating in the Australian Virtual Herbarium project.
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