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Genus Dysphania Family Chenopodiaceae

Description: Annual or short-lived perennial herbs with various glands or glandular hairs, aromatic.

Leaves alternate, simple.

Inflorescence spicate, paniculate or an axillary arrangement of glomerules of flowers. Flowers <1 mm long, bisexual, female or functionally male. Bisexual or male flowers terminal or near-terminal in the glomerule, the females lateral. Perianth segments 1–4, with 3 or 4 in terminal flowers of glomerule, free or fused at the base; limb hooded and often inflated. Stamens 1 or 2. Ovary membranous, smooth to papillate.

Seed erect, oblique or horizontal, globose to ellipsoid or laterally compressed; testa thickened, smooth.

Distribution and occurrence: World: 32 species. Australia 17 species: all mainland States.

Text by S. W. L. Jacobs; updated Louisa Murray [Mar 2018]
Taxon concept:

 Key to the species 
1Perianth segments 52
Perianth segments 1–47
2Annuals; stamens 0, 1 or 23
Perennials, spreading sometimes woody herb to 1m high; stamens 5
                       Back to 1
3Perianth segments fused to near apexDysphania truncata
Perianth segments fused below halfway
                       Back to 2
4Perianth segments strongly crested with a fimbriate keelDysphania cristata
Perianth segments rounded to acute, if keeled then broadest at the base and the keel not frimbriate
                       Back to 3
5Perianth segments fused in lower half, often darkDysphania melanocarpa
Perianth segments fused only near the base, usually light coloured
                       Back to 4
6Perianth segments rounded in back, exposing fruit, especially belowDysphania pumilio
Perianth segments keeled, at least towards the apex, more or less covering the fruit
                       Back to 5
Dysphania carinata
7Perianth segments 1–38
Perianth segments 4
                       Back to 1
8Flowers in axillary globerules9
Flowers in spike-like inflorescences
                       Back to 7
9Perianth segments 3 or 4; seed top-shaped to subgloboseDysphania littoralis
Perianth segments of lateral flowers of glomerules 1 or 2; seed erect , ellipsoid to obovoid or laterally flattened
                       Back to 8
10Seeds strongly flattened, often slightly twisted, obovate to triangular; pericarp almost smoothDysphania platycarpa
Seed ellipsoid or obovoid; pericarp smooth or minutely papillate
                       Back to 9
Dysphania glomulifera
11Perianth segments free, rounded or inconspicuously keeledDysphania plantaginella
Lower half of perianth segments fused into a hardened tube, keeled
                       Back to 8
Dysphania simulans
12Seeds glossy, usually compressed with an equatorial ridge; perianth segments hairy, not inflatedDysphania kalpari
Seed dull, subglobose without an equatorial ridge; perianth segments inflated, glabrous or sparsely hairy
                       Back to 7
Dysphania rhadinostachya
13Seeds horizontal or oblique; fruiting perianth not pouch-likeDysphania ambrosioides
Seeds vertical; fruiting perianth pouch-like
                       Back to 2
Dysphania multifida

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