abaxial: facing away from axis or stem, such as the lower surface of a leaf. cf. adaxial.
abortive: imperfectly developed; infertile.
abscission: the normal shedding from a plant of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. a ripe fruit, an old leaf. adj. abscissile.
acaulescent: without a trunk.
accessory fruit: a fruit, or group of fruits derived from one flower, in which the conspicuous, fleshy portion develops from the receptacle and is shed with the true fruit(s) attached, e.g. apple, rose hip and strawberry. Fig. 18 C, V & W.
accrescent: expanding after flowering, increasing in size with age, e.g. the calyx expanding around the base of a fruit.
achene: a dry indehiscent 1-seeded fruit, from an either superior or inferior ovary of 1 carpel, with the seed not fused to the fruit wall; e.g. as in Ranunculaceae (from a superior ovary) and Asteraceae (from an inferior ovary and usually topped by the pappus and sometimes called a cypsela). Fig. 18 Q, R & W.
actinomorphic: of a flower with the parts in each whorl particularly sepals, petals and stamens not differing in shape, size or placement. The flower therefore can be bisected symmetrically in several planes. cf. zygomorphic.
acumen: a long, tapering point.
acuminate: gradually tapering to a point. Fig. 6 C.
acute: pointed, having a short sharp apex, the converging edges forming an angle of less than 900. Fig. 6 D. cf. obtuse.
adaxial: facing towards the axis or stem. cf. abaxial.
adhesion: where two dissimilar parts or organs stick together but without organic fusion. adj. adherent. cf. cohesion.
adnate: (1) fusion of unlike parts, e.g. stamens fused to the corolla, cf. connate; (2) of an anther which has a broad point of attachment by which it is rigidly held at the apex of the filament, as in some eucalypts (family Myrtaceae). cf. versatile.
adventitious: term describing any organ arising in an abnormal position, e.g. roots arising from the shoot system.
adventive: introduced accidentally, as most exotic weeds are; often used of introductions that are not fully naturalized.
aerial root: an adventitious root growing from the stem above ground level.
aestivation: arrangement of the sepals and petals or their lobes in the unopened bud. Fig. 11. cf. vernation.
aff.: with affinities to.
agglutinated: stuck together, formed into clumps of cells, e.g. of pollen grains.
aggregate fruit: cluster of fruits derived from a single flower in which the carpels are free, or almost so, from each other. e.g. as in many Ranunculaceae, Annonaceae, Rosaceae. Fig. 18 V–X. cf. multiple fruit.
albumen: see endosperm.
allopatric: of two or more taxa, having different ranges of distribution, not overlapping. cf. sympatric.
alternate: (1) of leaves or flowers, inserted singly at different levels along the branches (commonly used to include spiral arrangement), Fig. 2 A & B; (2) between, as in ‘stamens alternate with the petals’.
amphicarpous: with two kinds of fruits; differing in position, character or time of ripening.
amphistomatic: leaves with stomates on both upper and lower surfaces. cf. hypostomatic.
amphitropous: of an ovule with the body bent or curved on both sides so that the micropyle is near the funicle; the embryo sac is curved. Fig. 21 E. cf. anatropous, campylotropous, hemitropous, orthotropous.
amplexicaul (perfoliate): a term used of a leaf base, where it clasps the stem. Fig. 4 F.
ampulliform: swollen at base like flask.
anastomosing: fusing to form a network, as in the veins of a leaf.
anatropous: of an ovule, with the body completely inverted so that the micropyle area is adjacent to the funicle, the embryo sac is more or less straight. Fig. 21 F. cf. amphitropous, campylotropous, hemitropous, orthotropous.
androdioecious: of plants, having bisexual flowers and male flowers on separate plants. cf. andromonoecious, dioecious, monoecious, polygamodioecious, polygamomonoecious, polygamous.
androecium: a collective name for the stamens, the male part of the flower. cf. gynoecium.
androgynaecandrous: inflorescence with male flowers above and below female flowers, as in the spikes of some species of Carex.
androgynophore: a stalk bearing both the stamens and superior ovary, e.g. in Passifloraceae. cf. gynophore.
androgynous: inflorescence with male flowers above female flowers, as in the spikes of some species of Carex.
andromonoecious: of plants, having bisexual and male flowers on the same plant. cf. androdioecious, dioecious, monoecious, polygamodioecious, polygamomonoecious, polygamous.
anemophilous: pollinated by wind.
angiosperms: the flowering plants; plants with ovules enclosed in an ovary.
annual: a plant completing its life cycle within one year from germination to fruiting and then dying.
annulus: the elastic ring of cells that initiates dehiscence in the sporangium of a fern.
anomalous: irregular; abnormal.
anterior: away from the axis, toward the subtending (enclosing) bract. cf. posterior.
anther: the pollen-bearing part of the stamen, most often 2-locular with the loculi (pollen cavities) joined by the connective. Fig. 20 A–E.
antheridium: the fertile organ of a male gametophyte or the male organ of a bisexual gametophyte, in which male gametes are formed. cf. archegonium.
anthesis: the time of flowering; the time when pollen is shed.
anthocarp: a false fruit consisting of the true fruit surrounded by the base of the perianth, as in Nyctaginaceae.
anthotelic (= determinate inflorescence): an inflorescence with the inflorescence or parts of the inflorescence ending in a flower or an aborted but distinctly floral bud, e.g. panicle, thyrsoid, dichasium, monochasium, Fig. 17 A, B, D & E. cf. indeterminate.
antipetalous: opposite the petals.
antisepalous: opposite the sepals.
antrorse: turned towards the apex, e.g. of hairs. cf. retrorse.
apetalous: without petals.
apex: the tip. pl. apices.
apical: of the apex or attached at the apex or top, e.g. ‘ovules attached to an apical placenta’. Fig. 13 G.
apiculate: with a small abrupt point which is demarcated from the organ to which it is attached, e.g. of some anthers.
apiculum: a short, abrupt, flexible point. adj. apiculate.
apocarpous: a gynoecium consisting of two or more carpels which are free and distinct from each other, e.g. as in Ranunculaceae and Dilleniaceae. cf. syncarpous.
apomixis: the process whereby a plant produces viable seed without fertilization. adj. apomictic.
appendage: an attachment developed on and projecting from the surface of an organ, e.g. anthers Fig. 20 H.
appendiculate: with a small appendage or projection.
appressed: pressed closely against another organ, e.g. of hairs on a leaf.
approximate: growing close together; almost so.
aquatic: living in water.
archegonium: a multicellular female sex organ producing and surrounding the egg.
arcuate: curved like a bow.
areolate: of surface pattern or venation, divided into many angular or squarish spaces, e.g. the venation and surface pattern in dried specimens in many Lauraceae. Fig. 9 I.
areole: (1) in Cactaceae, a cluster of hairs and/or spines borne at the node of a leafless stem; (2) a space in any reticulated surface, e.g. space between veins. adj. areolate.
aril: an expansion of the funicle into a fleshy or membranous appendage, sometimes partially or wholly covering the surface of the seed, and often brightly coloured, as in some Sapindaceae. Fig. 19 C. adj. arillate.
aristate: having a stiff, bristle-like awn or tip. Fig. 6 B.
aristulate: with a minute bristle.
armed: with spines and/or prickles.
article: (1) part of an organ which separates readily from the rest of an organ, e.g. as in a lomentum; (2) portion of branchlet between whorls of teeth in Casuarinaceae.
articulated: jointed; usually separating at the point of articulation into segments or articles, e.g. see unifoliolate leaf.
ascending: at first spreading horizontally and then becoming erect. Fig. 1 B.
asexual: without that part of the life cycle which involves fertilization and meiosis.
asperate: rough with hairs or points.
asymmetric (oblique): of a leaf, leaf base or other organ, having the sides unequal. Fig. 7 E.
atropous: see orthotropous.
attenuate: narrowing gradually. Fig. 7 A.
auct. non: (auctorum non., Latin) not of author; used to indicate that the preceding name has been misapplied by certain authors and is not that described by the succeeding authority.
auricle: (1) an ear-like outgrowth at the base of the sheath of some grasses and other monocots; (2) an ear-shaped lobe at the base of a leaf or other organ. adj. auriculate. Fig. 7 G.
autotrophic: independent of other organisms in respect of organic nutrition, able to form carbohydrates by process of photosynthesis. cf. parasite.
awn: a bristle-like appendage terminating an organ or inserted on its back. adj. awned. cf. aristate.
axil: the upper angle between one part of a plant and another part, e.g. the stem and a leaf, primary and secondary veins. adj. axillary.
axile: (1) on the axis; (2) of placentation, with the placentas and ovules along the central axis of the ovary in a compound ovary with septa, Fig. 13 C & D.
axillary bud: the bud or buds formed in the angle between the stem and the subtending (enclosing) leaf or bract.
axis: the central stem of a plant or an inflorescence, or the elongated part of the receptacle on which floral organs are situated.
baccate: berry-like, with fruits having the seeds embedded in pulp.
barbed: term describing a bristle or awn with terminal or lateral backward pointing projections, each projection being a barb. Fig. 15 J.
barbellate: minutely barbed.
basal: (1) (radical) attached or grouped at the base, e.g. of leaves in a rosette, Fig. 2 I; (2) of placentation, with the placenta at the base of the ovary, Fig. 13 H.
basifixed: attached at or by the base, e.g. of anthers attached by the base to the filament. Fig. 20 B. cf. dorsifixed, versatile.
basipetal: developing, in sequence, from the apex towards the base (i.e. with the youngest towards the base); e.g. of flowers in an inflorescence. cf. acropetal.
beak: a prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.
bearded: with tufts of hairs or hair-like appendages.
berry: a fleshy or pulpy indehiscent fruit with 1 or more seeds, the seeds embedded in the fleshy tissue of the pericarp; may be formed from either a superior or an inferior ovary. Fig. 18 D & E.
bi-: a prefix: in twos, as in two-; e.g. biternate = twice ternate, bipinnate = twice pinnate.
biconvex: both surfaces convex.
biennial: a herb completing the cycle from germination to fruiting in more than one, but less than two, years and then dying.
bifacial: of leaves, flat or channelled with distinct upper and lower surfaces.
bifid (2-fid): divided into two parts, usually to about halfway.
bifoliolate (2-foliolate): of a compound leaf, with two leaflets. Fig. 3 J.
bifurcate: with 2 forks or branches.
bilabiate: two-lipped, e.g. of a corolla in which fusion of an upper group and a lower group of petals extends beyond the top of the corolla tube.
bilateral: arranged on opposite sides.
bilocular (2-locular): having two cavities, e.g. of ovary or anther.
binate (2-nate): in pairs.
bipinnate (2-pinnate): of a compound leaf, with the lamina divided twice pinnately, i.e. with the pinnae themselves divided pinnately into pinnules. Fig. 3 B.
bipinnatifid (2-pinnatifid): of a simple leaf, with the primary lobes cut into smaller lobes (i.e. lobes pinnatifid) Fig. 5 T. cf. bipinnate.
biseriate (2-seriate): arranged in two rows or whorls.
bisexual: of a flower, with both stamens and carpels present and functional. cf. unisexual.
biternate (2-ternate): twice ternate, the 3 pinnae each divided into 3 pinnules (a total of 9 pinnules). Fig. 3 M.
blade (lamina): an expanded portion of a leaf.
blastotelic (indeterminate inflorescence): an inflorescence or part of an inflorescence not ending in a flower, i.e. ending in a non-floral bud, e.g. a thyrse, raceme or spike, Fig. 17 C, H & I. cf. determinate.
bloom: the white waxy covering on some fruits, leaves or stems. See also pruinose.
bole: the trunk of a tree below the lowest branch. cf. crown.
boss: a protuberance.
botryoid: a term describing an inflorescence of similar form to a botryum but ending in a flower or floral bud; includes raceme-like, spike-like, umbel-like and other variants.
botryum: a simple inflorescence ending in a vegetative (non-floral) bud in which the main axis bears lateral flowers; includes racemes, spikes, umbels and corymbs.
brackish: slightly salty.
bract: usually a more or less modified leaf, especially a smaller one associated with a flower or part of an inflorescence.
bracteate: (bracteose) with bracts.
bracteole: bract-like structure borne singly or in pairs on the pedicel or calyx of a flower.
branchlet: a small branch.
bristle: a more or less straight stiff hair. Fig. 14 N. adj. bristly. cf. spine.
broom-like: with many branches parallel or almost so and usually erect, as in Spartium (Spanish broom).
bulb: a storage organ, usually underground, composed of stem and leaf bases.
bulbil: a small bulb formed in the axil of a leaf or bract and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.
bulblet: a small bulb arising from another bulb.
bullate: with the surface blistered or puckered. Fig. 16 F.
burr: a prickly propagule consisting of a seed or fruit and associated floral parts.
buttress: a flange protruding from the lower part of the trunk, frequent in rainforest trees.
C3 plants: plants that use the C3 pathway of carboxylation and do not have specialized Kranz anatomy, i.e. the majority of autotrophic plants. See also Kranz anatomy.
C4 plants: plants that use the C4 pathway of carboxylation and have specialized Kranz anatomy. See also Kranz anatomy.
caducous: falling early, e.g. of stipules. cf. deciduous.
caespitose: growing in tufts.
callosity: a thickened and hardened swelling on the surface of an organ.
callus: (1) a small hard protrusion, e.g. on the labellum of some Orchidaceae; (2) a hard point below the lemma, in spikelets of Poaceae; (3) a protective layer of tissue formed over an injury. pl. calli.
calyculus: the collective term for the involucral bracts (or phyllaries) surrounding a head in the Asteraceae.
calyptra (operculum): a cap-like covering or lid of some flowers or fruits that becomes detached at maturity by abscission; e.g. (1) the cap on the buds of eucalypts, (2) the lid of circumsciss capsules.
calyptra scar: scar left when the calyptra has fallen away, as in eucalypt fruits.
calyx: the sepals of one flower collectively. pl. calyces.
calyx tube: a tube formed by the fusion of the sepals, but sometimes wrongly used in the sense of hypanthium.
cambium: the meristem (growing region) in woody stems and fruits that forms the woody tissue.
campylotropous: of an ovule, with the body bent or curved to one side so that the micropyle is near the funicle; the embryo sac is curved. Fig. 21 C. cf. anatropous, amphitropous, hemitropous, orthotropous.
canaliculate: with a longitudinal groove or channel.
canescent: whitish or pale grey, usually from a covering of short fine hairs.
canopy: (1) the branches and foliage of a tree; (2) often used as a collective term for the crowns of trees in a forest.
capillary: slender, hair-like.
capitate: (1) shaped like a head; (2) in a head-like cluster.
capitulum (head): a dense cluster of more or less sessile flowers, e.g. in Asteraceae a group of florets sessile on a common receptacle. Fig. 17 O & P.
capsule: a dry dehiscent fruit derived from two or more carpels. Capsules may dehisce in various ways. Fig. 18 L–P. adj. capsular.
carina: a keel. adj. carinate.
carnivorous: capable of trapping and digesting animals.
carpel: a unit of the female part of the flower (gynoecium), consisting of an ovary bearing one or more ovules, a receptive stigma, and often a stalk-like style between them. A flower can have a solitary carpel (and then the terms gynoecium and pistil are synonymous, Fig. 13 A & G) or more than one carpel. If the carpels (pistils) are free the gynoecium is apocarpous or if the carpels are fused the gynoecium (pistil) is syncarpous (or compound).
carpodium: a sterile female flower in which the ovary and ovule is reduced into a club-shaped structure with a short style but lacks the expanded stigma, as in Typha.
carpophore: in a fruit, the stalk of a mericarp. Fig. 18 H.
cartilaginous: hard and tough; gristly.
caruncle (strophile): an appendage of a seed, near the hilum (scar). Fig. 19 D. adj. carunculate.
caryopsis: a dry, indehiscent 1-seeded fruit in which the seed is fused to the wall of the fruit, as in family Poaceae. Fig. 18 S.
cataphyll: (1) a scale leaf associated with a vegetative part of a plant; (2) a leaf composed mostly of a leaf sheath or base with the lamina reduced to a minute awn, e.g. in some Juncus species.
catkin: a dense spike-like inflorescence, usually pendulous, with minute unisexual flowers.
caudate: bearing a narrow tail-like appendage.
caudex: a thick, erect trunk above and/or below ground level, e.g. in cycads.
caudicle: the stalk for a pollinium derived from the anther (as in some orchids); an elastic extension of some pollinia.
caulescent: with a trunk.
cauliflory: the production of flowers or fruits on well-developed trunks or major branches. adj. cauliflorous. cf. ramiflory.
cauline: borne on the more or less elongated aerial portion of a stem, e.g. describing leaves. cf. radical.
cell: the basic unit of plant structure consisting, at least when young, of a protoplast surrounded by a wall.
centrifixed: of a two-branched organ attached by its centre, e.g. a hair.
centrifugal: directed, or developing, from the centre or axis outwards. cf. centripetal.
centripetal: directed, or developing, from the outside towards the centre or axis. cf. centrifugal.
chaff: (1) membranous scales or bracts; (2) thin dry unfertilized ovules among the fully developed seeds of a fruit, as in many eucalypts.
chalaza: the part of an ovule to which the end of the stalk (funicle) is attached. Fig. 21. adj. chalazal.
channelled: with edges curved round (like a gutter).
character: any feature of an organism or taxonomic group that can be measured, counted or otherwise assessed.
chartaceous: papery, opaque and thin.
chasmogamous: of flowers that are pollinated while open. cf. cleistogamous.
chlorophyll: pigment(s) constituting the green colouring matter in plants and absorbing radiant energy in photosynthesis.
chromosome: a thread-like structure in the nucleus of a cell, containing a linear sequence of genes.
cilia: hairs more or less confined to the margins of an organ. sing. cilium. adj. ciliate.
ciliate: having the margin fringed with hairs, resembling an eyelash. Fig. 14 I. cf. fimbriate.
ciliolate: having the margin minutely fringed.
cincinnus: a tight, modified helicoid cyme with short pedicels on the developed side.
circinate (circinnate): spirally coiled with the tip innermost as in the young fronds of many ferns. Fig. 11 A.
circular (orbiculate): a 2-dimensional shape with length and breadth more or less equal. Fig. 5 E.
circumsciss (circumscissile): breaking open along a transverse line so that the top (calyptra) comes off like a lid, as in some capsules. Fig. 18 O.
cladode: a photosynthetic stem whose foliage leaves are usually reduced or absent.
clasping: surrounding or embracing, e.g. stem-clasping, of a lamina surrounding the stem.
class: a major taxonomic rank, between order and division.
classification: the establishing and defining of systematic groups; the assignment of organisms (plants) to groups within a system or hierarchy or ranks or categories. cf. systematics, taxonomy.
claw: a narrow, stalk-like basal portion of a petal, sepal or bract. cf. limb.
cleistogamous: of flowers that remain closed and are self-pollinating and set fertile seed. cf. chasmogamous.
cleistogene: specialized florets produced at the base of some grasses in the leaf sheaths. These modified florets produce fertile diaspores without opening and they are different in appearance and structure from those in the inflorescence.
cline: continuous morphological variation in form within a species, or sometimes, between two species. adj. clinal.
clone: genetically identical organisms produced from a single parent by vegetative reproduction , or by development of ovules without fertilization.
closed forest (rainforest): a forest dominated by broad-leaved trees with dense crowns that form a continuous layer (canopy) and with one or more of the following growth forms.
club: of orchids (family Orchidaceae) when perianth segment swollen apically and that portion often covered in glands or glandular hairs.
cluster bract: a bract subtending a cluster of flowers.
coalesced: with like or unlike parts or organs partially fused in a more or less irregular fashion. cf. adhesion, adnate, cohesion, connate.
cobwebbed: covered with long weak, loosely entangled hairs, resembling a spiderweb; usually whitish. adj. cobwebby.
coccus: one of the segments (usually 1-seeded) of a distinctly lobed fruit which becomes separated at maturity; sometimes called a mericarp. Fig. 18 H & P. pl. cocci.
cohesion: the sticking together of two or more similar parts that are not organically fused. adj. coherent. cf. adhesion.
collateral: situated side by side; adjacent and on the same radius of an axis.
colliculate: of a surface, rough with low rounded protuberances. Fig. 16 A.
columella: the persistent central axis in some fruits and cones.
column: (1) (gynostemium) a structure formed by the union of stamens, style and stigmas, as in Orchidaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Stylidiaceae; (2) the lower part of an awn in grasses, when different in form from the upper part.
coma: a tuft of hairs, especially on a seed or fruit.
community: an assemblage of plants that naturally occur together.
complicate: folded together.
compound: composed of several more or less similar parts, as opposed to simple; e.g. of an ovary formed from several united carpels or of a leaf divided into leaflets. Fig. 3 A–F, I–M.
compressed: flattened in one plane, either dorsally (bringing the front and back closer together) or laterally (bringing the sides closer together).
concavo-convex: concave on one side and convex on the other.
concolorous: with the same colour throughout or on both surfaces. cf. discolorous.
conduplicate: folded flat together lengthwise, e.g. as in aestivation. Fig. 11 C.
cone: (1) a group of sporophylls arranged tightly on a central axis, as in cycads and conifers
conflorescence: a branch system bearing flowers in which the main axis bears uniflorescences, but is itself qualitatively different in structure from the uniflorescences.
confluent: merging or blending together.
conical: cone-shaped, with the broad end at the base.
connate: fusion of similar parts, e.g. petals into a corolla tube. cf. adnate.
connivent: coming into contact or converging.
connective: the sterile part of an anther connecting the loculi.
conspecific: belonging to one and the same species.
contiguous: touching but not fused, adherent, or coherent.
contorted: twisted; a form of imbricate aestivation in which each segment has one edge overlapping the next segment. Fig. 11 E.
contraligule: a tongue-shaped structure produced at the apex of the leaf sheath opposite the blade in Scleria.
convolute: rolled with margins overlapping. Fig. 11 D.
coppice shoot: a shoot developed from a dormant bud in the trunk or larger branches of a tree, the leaves on such a shoot often differ from the adult leaves and are called juvenile leaves (similar to sapling leaves); a common feature of many eucalypts and rainforest trees. Coppiceshoots usually develop after damage to the trunk by fire, cutting etc. Fig. 1 G.
cordate: of a leaf or leaf base, heart-shaped with a basal notch. Fig. 7 F.
corm: a short, broad, fleshy, subterranean stem which produces aerial stems, leaves and flowers and in which food reserves are stored.
corolla: the petals of a flower collectively, frequently brightly coloured or white.
corona: any ring of tissue or appendage that stands between the perianth and the stamens, or on the perianth. e.g. as in Passiflora species.
cortex: the region of a stem or root surrounding the vascular cylinder but inside the epidermis.
corymb: an inflorescence (without a terminal flower) in which all the flowers are at the same level even though the pedicels arise at different levels. Fig. 17 K.
costa: a rib. adj. costate.
cotyledon: the first leaf or leaves of the embryo, present in the seed.
coumarin: a carbohydrate with a strong smell, as in some seeds and leaves.
crenate: of a margin, with shallow, rounded teeth. Fig. 8 B.
crenulate: finely crenate.
crested: with a terminal ridge or tuft.
crisped: very strongly, and usually finely, wavy. Fig. 8 I. cf. undulate.
crown: the part of a tree or shrub above the level of the lowest branch.
crustaceous: hard, thin and brittle.
cryptogam: a plant whose sexual reproductive parts are not conspicuous; a plant that produces spores, not seeds, in its sexual reproductive cycle, e.g. ferns, mosses, algae. cf. phanerogam.
cuboid: cube-like; a 3-dimensional shape.
culm: an aerial stem bearing the inflorescence, in grasses, rushes etc.
cultivar: cultivated variety, a variety developed in cultivation. An assemblage of cultivated individuals distinguished by any characters significant for the purposes of agriculture, forestry or horticulture, and which, when reproduced retains its distinguishing features.
cuneate: wedge-shaped, e.g. of a leaf or leaf base. Fig. 7 B.
cupule: a small cup. adj. cupular.
cusp: sharp, rigid point.
cuspidate: tapering into a sharp rigid point.
cyathium: an inflorescence of reduced unisexual flowers surrounded by involucral bracts, e.g. in Euphorbia species. Fig. 17 R.
cylindric: tubular or rod-shaped.
cyme: an inflorescence in which the main axis ends in a flower and further growth of the inflorescence is by one or more branches which themselves end in a flower (the main and lateral branches may bear bracteoles but have no bracts, leaves or nodes). adj. cymose. e.g. dichasium, monochasium. Fig. 17 D & E.
cymule: a small dichasium.
cypsela (an achene): the fruit formed in most Asteraceae; a dry indehiscent 1-seeded fruit formed from inferior ovary of 1 carpel, with the seed not fused to the fruit wall and usually topped by the pappus. Fig. 18 R.
cystoliths: mineral concretions, usually of calcium carbonate on a cellulose stalk, chiefly occurring in specialized hairs in some Urticaceae and Cannabaceae and in Acanthaceae; often appearing as tubercle-based hairs. Fig. 15 B.
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