Glossary of Botanical Terms:

ebracteate: without bracts.

echinate: spiny; bearing stiff, stout, prickly hairs.

ecotype: a plant or group of plants exhibiting certain characteristics of growth or flowering in response to particular environmental conditions.

edaphic: pertaining to the soil.

eglandular: without glands.

elaiosome: an oil body on some seeds; a feature of some seeds dispersed by ants.

ellipsoid: the 3-dimensional equivalent of elliptic.

elliptic: a 2-dimensional shape, oval in outline, broadest about the middle. Fig. 5 D.

elongate: lengthened; stretched out.

emarginate: having a broad shallow notch at the apex. Fig. 6 G.

embryo: the rudimentary plant present in a mature seed or within the archegonium after fertilization and some development.

embryo sac: the female gametophyte, produced within the ovule. Fig. 21.

emergent: of a plant, (1) rising above the surrounding plants, e.g. of a tree above the rainforest canopy; (2) rising above the surface of the water.

enation: epidermal outgrowth, projection.

endemic: having a natural distribution confined to a particular geographic region. cf. native.

endocarp: the innermost layer of the pericarp. cf. exocarp.

endosperm: nutritive tissue within the seed, usually surrounding the embryo or to one side of it, and formed within the embryo sac (in angiosperms a product of accessory fertilization). cf. perisperm.

entire: of a margin, neither dissected nor toothed. Fig. 8 A.

entomophilous: pollinated by insects.

ephemeral: short-lived annual.

epi-: a prefix: upon, as in epipetalous = borne on the petals.

epicalyx: a whorl of bracts just below the flower, resembling an extra calyx.

epicarp: the outermost layer of the pericarp.

epicormic: term describing buds, shoots or flowers borne on the old wood of trees, often applied to shoots arising from dormant buds after injury or fire, as in eucalypts.

epidermis: the outer layer of cells of an organ.

epigeal: of germination, having the cotyledon(s) emerging from the seed coat and becoming photosynthetic. cf. hypogeal.

epigynous: of floral parts, especially stamens, inserted on or above the ovary, and arising from tissue that is fused to the ovary wall. Fig. 12 B. cf. hypogynous, perigynous.

epilithic: of plants growing on rocks, e.g. some orchids.

epimatium: the ovule-bearing scale in some conifers, as in Podocarpus species.

epipeltate: of an anther that is dorsifixed (peltate) and in which the part of the anther that is prolonged downwards beyond the attachment point of the filament faces inwards in relation to the centre of the flower. cf. hypopeltate.

epipetalous: borne on the petals.

epiphyllous: growing on leaves, as plantlets on the leaves in some Crassulaceae.

epiphyte: a plant perched, but not parasitic, on another plant. Fig. 1 I. cf. lithophyte.

episepalous: of stamens, borne on the sepals.

equitant: of leaves, folded longitudinally with the two inner surfaces (representing the upper leaf surface) fused except towards the base where it clasps another leaf on the opposite side of the stem; one margin represents the leaf keel and the lamina is vertically orientated; as in Iris. Leaf arrangement, Fig. 2 E; cross section through equitant arrangement Fig. 11 B.

erect: (1) upright, e.g. of a shrub, Fig. 1 A; (2) perpendicular to a surface, e.g. of hairs.

eremean: pertaining to regions of low, irregular rainfall.

ericoid: of leaves, small and sharply pointed like those of the heaths.

erose: of margins, irregular as if nibbled. Fig. 8 E.

espatheate: without spathes.

eusporangiate: of ferns, having sporangia with walls more than one cell thick, originating from a group of cells. cf. leptosporangiate.

evergreen: a plant bearing leaves throughout the year. cf. deciduous.

ex-: a prefix: without, e.g. exstipulate, without stipules.

excentric: not centrally placed, without a fixed centre.

excurrent: running through to the apex and beyond as a mucro, e.g. of the midvein in a leaf.

exine: the outer layer of a pollen grain or spore.

exocarp: the combined epicarp and mesocarp of a fruit. cf. endocarp.

exotic: introduced from outside the area concerned, in the case of N.S.W. usually from overseas.

exserted: projecting beyond the surrounding objects, e.g. of stamens protruding beyond the perianth, or of valves projecting beyond the rim of a capsular fruit. cf. included.

exstipulate: without stipules.

extrafloral: not within the flower, usually applied to nectariferous glands, e.g. as those on the petiole in some Croton species and on the phyllodes of some wattles. Fig. 19 E–H.

extravaginal: of a tiller that grows by breaking through the subtending leaf sheath as it grows. cf. intravaginal.

extrorse: of stamens, dehiscing towards the outside of the flower. cf. introrse, latrorse.

f.: an abbreviation for (1) forma if preceding a taxon epithet, or (2) filius (son of) if following the author of the taxon (e.g. L.f. – son of Linnaeus).

facultative: of parasites, optional, cf. obligate.

falcate: sickle-shaped, e.g. of a leaf. Fig. 5 N.

family: a group of one or more genera believed to be related. cf. genus.

farina: a fine mealy powder on the surface of some plants.

fasciated: unnaturally and often monstrously connate or adnate, the coalesced parts often grossly proliferated in size and/or number; e.g. inflorescence of Celosia.

fascicled: arranged in bundles or clusters, e.g. leaves. Fig. 2 J.

feldmark: high altitude plant community characterized by scattered, dwarf prostrate plants with a mat or cushion habit.

felted: matted with very short interlocked hairs, having the appearance or texture of felt. Fig. 14 D. cf. tomentose.

fenestrate: windowed or provided with openings.

ferruginous: rusty, rust-coloured.

fertile: capable of reproducing itself; also used of portions of a plant or organ producing reproductive structures.

fertilization: the union of female and male gametes.

fibre: (1) a thread or thread-like body; (2) a long slender, thick-walled cell as in sclerenchyma tissue.

-fid: a suffix: divided to about half-way, e.g. 2-fid, 3-fid, bi-fid, tri-fid.

filament: (1) any thread-like body; (2) the stalk of a stamen.

filiform: thread-like. Fig. 5 A.

filius: (Latin) son, abbreviated to f.

fimbriate: having the margin fringed with long hair-like processes. Fig. 14 J. cf. ciliate.

fistula: the opening of a hollow leaf-base; through which the stem emerges.

flaccid: limp; tending to wilt. cf. turgid.

flexuous (flexuose): bent from side to side in one plane in zigzag form.

floccose: covered with soft woolly hairs which are entangled and tend to rub off.

flora: (1) the assemblage of plant taxa of an area; (2) a book dealing systematically with the plants of an area.

floral: belonging to or associated with a flower.

floral tube: see hypanthium.

floret: (1) a small flower, one of a spikelet or dense cluster, as in Asteraceae; (2) a grass flower, together with the lemma and palea that enclose it.

flower: the sexual reproductive structure of angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium and gynoecium. Fig. 12.

foliaceous: leaf-like.

-foliate: a suffix: number of leaves, as in bifoliate = with 2 leaves.

-foliolate: an adjective used with a number prefix to indicate the number of leaflets forming a compound leaf, e.g. bifoliolate, a leaf with 2 leaflets.

follicle: a dry fruit derived from a single carpel and opening along one suture. Fig. 18 F & G.

forb: a non-woody plant other than a grass, sedge, rush, etc. cf. herb.

forest: a plant community dominated by long-boled trees in close proximity. cf. woodland.

form (forma, Latin): the smallest taxonomic category, generally used for variations occurring among individuals of any population; sometimes abbreviated to f.

fovea: a pit. adj. foveate.

foveola: a small pit. adj. foveolate.

free: not united with any other organ.

free-central: of placentation, with the placenta along the central axis in a compound ovary without septa. Fig. 13 E & F.

frond: the leaf of a fern or cycad; sometimes used for a large compound leaf as in palms.

fruit: the seed-bearing structure in angiosperms, formed from the ovary after flowering. Fig. 18.

funicle: the stalk of the ovule.

fused: joined and growing together.

fusiform: spindle-shaped, i.e. narrower at both ends than at the middle.

galea: in Orchidaceae, a perianth segment or group of perianth segments shaped like a helmet.

gamete: a reproductive cell; a cell or nucleus that fuses with another in sexual reproduction.

gametophyte: the body that bears gametes; produced by the germinating spore. cf. prothallus.

gamopetalous (= sympetalous): with petals united by their margins, at least at the base. cf. polypetalous.

gamophyllous: having the bases of opposite leaves fused around the stem. Fig. 4 E.

gamosepalous: having the sepals united by their margins, at least at the base.

genes: the total complement of hereditary factors contained within an organism: the unit of inheritance.

geniculate: bent like a knee.

genotype: the total complement of hereditary factors (genes) acquired by an organism from its parents and available for transmisssion to its offspring. cf. phenotype.

genus: a taxonomic group of closely related species or a single species without close relatives; closely related genera are grouped into families. pl. genera.

geophyte: a plant with an underground storage organ (e.g. corm, tuber, bulb or rhizome) and with annually renewed aerial shoots.

gibbous: humped, swollen on one side.

glabrate: glabrous, but obviously having previously had an indumentum.

glabrescent: becoming glabrous.

glabrous: without hairs or scales.

gland: a structure, within or on the surface of a plant, with a secretory function; e.g. surface glands (Fig. 16 E), petiolar or lamina glands (Fig. 19 E–H).

glandular: having glands, e.g. of hairs (Fig. 15 C), of a surface (Fig. 16 E).

glaucous: dull blue-green in colour, with a whitish bloom which can often be rubbed off; sometimes characteristic of young leaves, as in some eucalypts. cf. pruinose.

globose (globular, orbicular, spherical): a 3-dimensional shape, ball-shaped, more or less circular in outline.

glochid: a barbed bristle, as in many Cactaceae.

glomerule: a small compact cluster, e.g. of flowers.

glumaceous: having the nature of or resembling a glume, tending to be chaffy or membranous in texture.

glume: a bract in the inflorescence of some monocots; (1) one of the two bracts at the base of the grass spikelet; (2) also used in Cyperaceae and Restionaceae for the small bracts on the spikelet in which flower is subtended.

glutinous: sticky.

grain: the fruit of grasses, see caryopsis.

granular: of a surface, finely mealy, covered with small granules.

grass: a plant belonging to the family Poaceae.

grassland: low vegetation dominated by grasses.

gymnosperms: plants, such as conifers and cycads, whose seeds are naked, the ovules not being enclosed in an ovary.

gynaecandrous: inflorescence with female flowers above male flowers, as in the spikes of some species of Carex.

gynobasic: of a style, arising near the base of the gynoecium between the lobes of the ovary.

gynodioecious: of plants, having female flowers and bisexual flowers on separate plants. cf. androdioecious, andromonoecious, dioecious, monoecious, polygamodioecious, polygamomonoecious, polygamous.

gynoecium: the carpel (if solitary) or carpels of a flower collectively; the female part of the flower. cf. androecium.

gynomonoecious: of plants, having bisexual and female flowers on the same plant. cf. androdioecious, andromonoecious, dioecious, gynodioecious, monoecious, polygamodioecious, polygamomonoecious, polygamous.

gynophore: the stalk of a superior ovary. cf. androgynophore.

gynostemium: see column.

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