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Description: The Magnoliopsida are terrestrial, epiphytic or aquatic vascular plants which form flowers and reproduce sexually by seeds enclosed in an ovary. The sporophyte consists of true roots, stems and true leaves which are either simple, variously compound or sometimes reduced and scale-like and are alternate, opposite or whorled.

The flowers include the often showy petals and sepals as well as the sexual reproductive structures. The two distinct phases of the life cycle are not readily apparent as the gametophytes are microscopic and formed in the stamens and carpels. The pollen grains (microspores) are produced within the anthers and transferred to the stigma of the carpel. This process (pollination) is effected by various vectors Including wind, water, insects and larger animals; many flowers are specialized for a particular agent. After pollination and fertilization in the ovule of the egg cell (formed by the megaspore) by the sperm (formed in the pollen grain) the seed develops.

Seeds are protected by the ovary wall (pericarp) in the fruiting stage and the embryo has one or two cotyledons. After dispersal of the fruit and/or seed and its germination the new sporophyte is formed

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 470 families; 13,700 genera; 240,000 species, cosmopolitan. Australia: c. 230 families, 2600 genera;18,000 species, all States.

Text by G. J. Harden
Taxon concept:

 Key to the class MAGNOLIOPSIDA 
1Carnivorous plants: either with glandular hairs on the leaves, or with bladders 1–2 mm long borne on submerged or subterranean leaves (If carnivorous leaves are tubular 'pitchers', as in pitcher plants, see SARRACENIACEAE)2
Plants not carnivorous4
2Leaves with glandular hairs, leaves either borne in a rosette, or erect and divided into 2 branches, or on aerial stems; flowers actinomorphicDROSERACEAE
Leaves modified into insect-trapping bladders, borne in water in aquatic species, or on underground leaves; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic
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3Leaves alternate; flowers actinomorphicDROSERACEAE
Leaves whorled; flowers zygomorphic
                       Back to 2
4Waterplants: either plants floating on or in water, or plants totally submerged in water or plants rooted in saline mud or in ± permanent water with the upper leaves and flowers in the air5
Plants neither floating on nor growing in water
                       Back to 1
5Woody plants – trees or shrubs growing in saline mud (mangroves) or ± permanent water6
Plants not woody
                       Back to 4
6Mangroves – woody plants growing in saline mud or estuaries7
Woody plants growing in ± permanent water, either fresh or brackish but rarely saline
                       Back to 5
7Leaves opposite8
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 6
8Interpetiolar stipules present on the youngest stems, falling as the leaves mature; leaves crowded, internodes mostly <1 cm long; ovary inferiorRHIZOPHORACEAE
Stipules absent; leaves not crowded, internodes >2 cm long; ovary superior
                       Back to 7
9Pneumatophores present; leaves white-hairy below; a common mangroveAVICENNIACEAE
Pneumatophores absent; leaves glabrous; not common, shrubs on the inland side of mangrove communities
                       Back to 8
10Shoots with stipules 20–30 mm long; leaves palmately veined, densely white-hairy on lower surfaceMALVACEAE
Stipules absent or very small; leaves pinnately veined, glabrous
                       Back to 7
11Milky latex present in broken twigs and petioles; 2 or 3 small glands present at base of laminaEUPHORBIACEAE
Milky latex absent; glands not present on lamina
                       Back to 10
12Branchlets photosynthetic; leaves apparently absent – leaves either scale-like, or present only on new growth13
Branchlets not photosynthetic; leaves normally developed, persistent or sometimes seasonally deciduous
                       Back to 6
13Trees or shrubs, branchlets often drooping; leaves scale-like, whorledCASUARINACEAE
Shrubs with stiff, intertwining branches; leaves absent or present only on new growth, alternate
                       Back to 12
14Leaves >1 m long, compoundARECACEAE
Leaves <20 cm long, simple
                       Back to 12
15Trees with papery bark; leaves with several longitudinal veinsMYRTACEAE
Trees or shrubs, bark not papery; leaves with only one longitudinal vein
                       Back to 14
                       Back to 15
17Plants hairy; leaves >5 mm wideONAGRACEAE
Plants glabrous; leaves <5 mm wide
                       Back to 16
18Either herbs free-floating and not attached to the substrate, or herbs attached at edge of water with stems floating over the water surface19
Herbs rooted in substrate but not attached at edge of water with stems floating over the water surface
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19Plants free-floating, not attached to substrate or margin20
Plants attached to substrate near margin of water and stems extending out over surface of water
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20All or most of the vegetative parts of the plant (except for roots or root-like structures) floating on the surface of the water21
All or most of the vegetative parts of the plant floating below the surface of the water
                       Back to 19
21Plant-body usually <10 mm long, often <5 mm long; roots absent or hair-like; inflorescence minute, flowers unisexual (former Lemnaceae taxa)ARACEAE
Plants always >5 cm long in at least one dimension; roots present, not hair-like; flowers bisexual or unisexual or absent
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22Petioles usually >5 cm long and inflatedPONTEDERIACEAE
Petioles absent or not inflated
                       Back to 21
23Flowering plants (sometimes reproducing vegetatively); leaves simple24
Flowers never produced, reproduction by spores or vegetatively; leaves simple or divided
                       Back to 22
24Leaves 6–15 cm long, 4–8 cm wide with 7–15 ridges, closely overlappingARACEAE
Leaves generally <6 cm long, without conspicuous ridges
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25Leaves opposite or whorled26
Leaves alternate and either leaves 2-lobed from base, or plant body very small
                       Back to 20
26Leaves modified into animal traps with basal sensitive bristlesDROSERACEAE
Animal traps and sensitive bristles absent
                       Back to 25
27Leaves simple and unbranchedHYDROCHARITACEAE
Leaves much branched
                       Back to 26
28All divisions of leaves dichotomous, ultimate segments toothedCERATOPHYLLACEAE
Initial division of leaves trichotomous or more, subsequent divisions dichotomous, ultimate segments not toothed
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29Animal traps present and obvious; plants >2 cm longLENTIBULARIACEAE
Animal traps absent; plant body usually <1 cm long (former Lemnaceae taxa)
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30Leaves peltate31
Leaves not peltate
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31Flowers yellow; no mucilage on leavesAPIACEAE
Flowers maroon; mucilage on leaves
                       Back to 30
32Leaves opposite33
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 30
33Leaves 10–20 mm wide, ± sessileAMARANTHACEAE
Leaves >20 mm wide, petiole >10 mm long
                       Back to 32
34Ocreae (sheaths of fused stipules) present around the petioles and stemsPOLYGONACEAE
Ocreae absent
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35Leaves with numerous longitudinal veins; base of lamina cordate; flowers bluePONTEDERIACEAE
Leaves pinnately veined; base of lamina sagittate, hastate or attenuate; flowers yellow, pink or white
                       Back to 34
36Leaves with lamina ± triangular, base hastate or sagittate, apex acute; flowers pink to ± whiteCONVOLVULACEAE
Leaves with lamina ± elliptic, base attenuate, apex rounded; flowers yellow
                       Back to 35
37Leaves emergent, flowers emergent; sometimes plant ± completely emergent38
Leaves submerged or floating on the surface, flowers submerged or emergent
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38Plants with long, narrow leaves, many times longer than wide, often grass-like39
Plants with leaves only, at most, a few to several times longer than wide; plants not grass-like
                       Back to 37
39Plants ± grass-like and flowers without true perianth and subtended by one or more bracts (glumes, lemmas or paleas) and organized into characteristic spikelets; leaves flat or terete40
Plants not grass-like or if grass-like then flowers with true perianth (hard and scarious or petaloid) or flowers arranged in spikelets; leaves various, sometimes reduced to open sheaths on stems
                       Back to 38
40Flowers unisexual, in a group surrounded by 4 spreading bractsHYDATELLACEAE
Flowers bisexual or unisexual, each flower or group of fused unisexual flowers subtended and often enclosed by a bract
                       Back to 39
41Fruit dehiscent, splitting on one side to release a smooth translucent seedCENTROLEPIDACEAE
Fruit indehiscent
                       Back to 40
42Flowers subtended by a single bract (glume) and variously arranged into spikelets; leaves mostly with closed sheath and mostly without ligulesCYPERACEAE
Flowers enclosed by a lemma and palea and these variously arranged in characteristic spikelets and mostly subtended by sterile glumes; leaves usually with open sheaths and ligules present although these often much reduced
                       Back to 41
43Perianth dry and scarious, flowers or flower clusters in open paniculate inflorescences; leaves flat, terete or reduced to sheaths; flowers usually bisexualJUNCACEAE
Perianth of various forms but not dry and scarious, flowers rarely arranged in open paniculate inflorescences and then flowers unisexual
                       Back to 39
44Leaves on adult plants reduced to open sheaths which sometimes bear a small ± linear lamina; flowers usually unisexual and plants mostly dioeciousRESTIONACEAE
Leaves not reduced to open sheaths; flowers bisexual or unisexual and plants monoecious
                       Back to 43
45Flowers unisexual with both sexes aggregated into small dense heads surrounded by 2 awned bracts; leaves all basal, linear, <8 cm longERIOCAULACEAE
Flowers bisexual or unisexual and male and female flowers separated in same inflorescence; leaves >8 cm long, not all basal, linear
                       Back to 44
46Stems and often margins of leaf bases hairy; flowers yellow, conspicuousPHILYDRACEAE
Neither stems nor leaf bases obviously hairy; flowers white, greenish or brown, often inconspicuous
                       Back to 45
47Leaves septate-cylindric, constricted slightly at each septumAPIACEAE
Leaves not septate-cylindric
                       Back to 46
48Leaves inflated and spongy when fresh; flowers bisexualJUNCAGINACEAE
Leaves neither inflated nor spongy; flowers unisexual, plants monoecious
                       Back to 47
49Inflorescence open, flowers on clearly visible pedicels, inflorescence axis visible between flowers; flowers >10 mm diamALISMATACEAE
Flowers arranged in dense elongated or globose heads; individual flower pedicels not visible; inflorescence axis visible between clusters but not between individual flowers; individual flowers <5 mm diam
                       Back to 48
50Inflorescence dense, spike-like; male flowers above, female flowers below, ± separated by a portion of stemTYPHACEAE
Inflorescence of dense globose clusters arranged along the axis; upper clusters male, lower clusters female
                       Back to 49
51Leaves compound and/or lobed52
Leaves simple, reduced or absent
                       Back to 38
52Leaves palmately lobed or divided, rarely pinnate and then usually with only 2 pairs of pinnae; flowers yellow, solitary, distinctly stalkedRANUNCULACEAE
Leaves pinnately lobed or divided; flowers white, reddish or greenish, in umbels or racemes or ± solitary and sessile in spike-like inflorescences
                       Back to 51
53Flowers in umbels; crushed leaves smelling like carrot leaves; plants only rarely growing in waterAPIACEAE
Flowers not in umbels; crushed leaves not smelling like carrot leaves; plants mostly growing in water
                       Back to 52
54Widest leaves or leaf segments >5 mm wide; flowers white, pedicellate, in racemesBRASSICACEAE
Leaves and leaf segments <3 mm wide; flowers red, white or greenish, ± sessile in axils of leaves forming a spike-like inflorescence
                       Back to 53
55Leaves reduced to sheaths on aerial stems56
Leaves not reduced to sheaths on stems
                       Back to 51
56Sheaths open57
Sheaths closed
                       Back to 55
57Perianth dry and scarious, flowers or flower clusters in open paniculate inflorescences; flowers usually bisexualJUNCACEAE
Perianth of various forms but not dry and scarious, flowers usually unisexual and plants mostly dioecious
                       Back to 56
58Leaves all basal59
Leaves spread along the stem, basal leaves sometimes also present, or leaves absent
                       Back to 55
59Lamina ± circular with a radial slit, petiole attached near centre of laminaNYMPHAEACEAE
Lamina not ± circular and/or petiole attached towards margin
                       Back to 58
60Plants without horizontal rhizomes or stolonsALISMATACEAE
Plants with horizontal rhizomes or stolons
                       Back to 59
61Lamina <10 cm long; mature plants <30 cm high; flowers whiteHYDROCHARITACEAE
Lamina >10 cm long; mature plants >50 cm high; flowers white or blue
                       Back to 60
62Longitudinal veins usually <10 (always <20) and midrib well defined, cross veins obvious; flowers whiteALISMATACEAE
Longitudinal veins numerous, usually >20, midrib not well defined, cross veins obscure; flowers blue
                       Back to 61
63Leaves with an ocrea (sheathing stipule); leaves alternate or absentPOLYGONACEAE
Leaves without an ocrea but leaf bases sometimes winged and half encircling stem; leaves opposite, whorled or alternate
                       Back to 58
64Leaves opposite or whorled65
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 63
65Flowers in heads; leaves >20 mm wide, petiole mostly >10 mm longASTERACEAE
Flowers solitary or in cymes, spikes or racemes; leaves <20 mm wide, sessile or petiole <10 mm long (sometimes to 15 cm long in Limosella)
                       Back to 64
66Flowers in terminal spikes, pink to purpleLYTHRACEAE
Flowers solitary or in cymes or racemes, white, blue, red-brown or petals translucent
                       Back to 65
67Leaves united at base, sessile and <3 mm wide, lamina linear to oblong; corolla white or red-brown, 4-lobed, lobes ± equal68
Leaves not united at base, either petiolate, or lamina >3 mm wide, oblanceolate to ± obovate; corolla white to blue, 5-lobed, or 4-lobed and then lobes unequal
                       Back to 66
68Flowers unisexual, plants dioecious; corolla red-brown or translucent; aerial stems to 1 m highRUBIACEAE
Flowers bisexual; corolla white; aerial stems <20 cm high
                       Back to 67
69Flowers in few-flowered cymes; corolla tube split to base on one sidePORTULACACEAE
Flowers solitary; corolla tube not split on one side
                       Back to 68
70Leaves without obvious petioles, leaves either sessile or linear to spathulate; flowers pink, blue, purple or white71
Leaves with obvious petioles, neither linear nor spathulate; flowers yellow
                       Back to 64
71Leaves sessile, without a winged base; flowers solitary in axils, blue, pink or purpleLYTHRACEAE
Leaves linear or spathulate with a winged base half encircling the stem; flowers solitary and/or in heads, blue, pink or white
                       Back to 70
72Plants <20 cm high; flowers in 1–few-flowered cymes, whitePORTULACACEAE
Plants 40–200 cm high; flowers in heads, white, blue or pink
                       Back to 71
73Flowers in large panicles; leaves glabrous, without stipulesMENYANTHACEAE
Flowers solitary, axillary; leaves either with small stipules and/or stems and leaves hairy
                       Back to 70
74At least some leaves always floating on surface of water, flowers (if present) emergent, often some leaves submerged75
Most leaves completely submerged, some leaves may be emergent or floating when plant flowering
                       Back to 37
75Leaves simple, peltate with petiole attached near centre of lamina; lamina ± circular, often with a radial slit76
Leaves compound or simple and not peltate or rarely petiole attached near the margin of the lamina; lamina broad-lanceolate, elliptic, ovate or obovate
                       Back to 74
76Leaves without a radial slit, margin entireCABOMBACEAE
Leaves with a radial slit, margin entire to toothed
                       Back to 75
77Leaves all basal arising from a corm or buried horizontal rhizome; petals numerousNYMPHAEACEAE
Leaves arising along a floating horizontal stolon; petals 5
                       Back to 76
78Leaves compound, pinnae 4, sessile, at apex of long petiole, floating on surface of waterFILICOPSIDA
Leaves simple
                       Back to 75
79Leaves attached along trailing stem; submerged leaves different from floating leaves (that is, leaves dimorphic)POTAMOGETONACEAE
Leaves all basal; leaves either all similar or dimorphic
                       Back to 78
80Plants forming deeply buried tubers; inflorescence many-floweredAPONOGETONACEAE
Plants not forming deeply buried tubers; flowers solitary
                       Back to 79
81Leaves with base ± cordate; lamina >20 mm wide and with 5–7 longitudinal veinsHYDROCHARITACEAE
Leaves with base tapering into petiole; lamina <20 mm wide, venation obscure or only midvein visible
                       Back to 80
82Submerged leaves compound or deeply lobed83
Submerged leaves simple and entire
                       Back to 74
83Submerged leaves pinnately divided; emergent leaves pinnately divided or entireHALORAGACEAE
Submerged leaves dichotomously or trichotomously divided
                       Back to 82
84Submerged leaves opposite or whorled; floating leaves if present peltateCABOMBACEAE
Submerged leaves alternate; all leaves divided into linear segments
                       Back to 83
85Plants of marine, estuarine or brackish habitats86
Plants of freshwater habitats
                       Back to 82
86Leaves elliptic to ± oblongHYDROCHARITACEAE
Leaves elongated, filiform to linear, grass-like
                       Back to 85
87Leaves >8 mm wide, linearPOSIDONIACEAE
Leaves <8 mm wide, filiform to linear
                       Back to 86
88Flowers bisexual; flowers in pairs, flowering peduncle >4 cm longPOTAMOGETONACEAE
Flowers unisexual; flowers mostly sessile and solitary or in elongated inflorescences ± sessile in axils of leaves
                       Back to 87
89Plants marine; pollen grains thread-like90
Plants of brackish or ephemeral saline pools (not marine); pollen grains ± globose
                       Back to 88
90Flowers solitary; plants dioeciousCYMODOCEACEAE
Flowers in rows in a flattened spadix enclosed in a spathe; plants monoecious
                       Back to 89
91Leaves all basal92
Leaves arising along stems
                       Back to 85
92Leaves with lamina stiff, ± cylindrical; plants reproducing by spores, flowers never producedISOETACEAE
Leaves with lamina soft, flattened, grass-like; plants flowering when mature but flowers usually not present in submerged immature growth
                       Back to 91
Stolons never formed
                       Back to 92
94Plants producing a well-buried corm, leaves arising from the apex of the cormAPONOGETONACEAE
Plants not producing a corm, roots superficial, arising from near leaf bases
                       Back to 93
95Plants not producing flattened leaves; branches in whorls, secondary branches ± whorled and ± leaf-like; often encrusted with lime; plants not flowering, reproducing by spores (Chara & Nitella - algae not in this Flora)CHARACEAE
Plants producing leaves with flattened lamina, leaves often flat, narrow, linear and grass-like; rarely lime-encrusted; mature plants producing flowers
                       Back to 91
96Leaves alternate97
Leaves opposite or whorled
                       Back to 95
97Leaves with stipular sheath (or ligule) extending above junction of lamina and basal sheath98
Leaves with basal sheath not extending above junction of sheath with lamina, no stipular sheath or ligule above but auricles sometimes present
                       Back to 96
98Leaves with lamina mostly >1 mm wide; perennials with rhizomes, often with tough stems; leaves with a stipular sheath or base of lamina stem-claspingPOTAMOGETONACEAE
Leaves with lamina mostly <1 mm wide; usually delicate annuals, stems weak; leaves with a stipular sheath
                       Back to 97
99Leaves with 2 short auricles at basePOTAMOGETONACEAE
Leaves without auricles
                       Back to 97
100Leaves opposite and lamina expanded101
Leaves usually whorled, lamina filiform or linear
                       Back to 96
101Leaves with 3 or more longitudinal veins arising from near the base of lamina and re-uniting below apex; flowers unisexualCALLITRICHACEAE
Leaves with only 1 longitudinal vein visible or venation obscure; flowers bisexual
                       Back to 100
102Leaves entire, shortly petiolate with 2 stipules at base, lateral veins ending in minute glandsELATINACEAE
Leaves toothed and stem-clasping or entire with relatively long petioles, stipules absent
                       Back to 101
103Leaves opposite or ± whorled, lamina with a short, expanded sheath-like baseNAJADACEAE
Leaves whorled, sessile, without an expanded sheath-like base
                       Back to 100
104Plants either climbing, or epiphytic on other plants, or ± parasitic on the aerial parts of other plants105
Plants neither climbing nor epiphytic nor parasitic on aerial parts of other plants
                       Back to 4
105Epiphytes, parasites, or hemiparasites, plants not rooted in the soil106
Climbing or twining plants with roots in the soil
                       Back to 104
106Rootless parasites or hemiparasites on the aerial parts of other plants107
Plants epiphytic but not parasitic on other plants
                       Back to 105
107Stems thread-like, leafless or almost so, forming Rtangled masses over the host and attached to the host by haustoria108
Stems robust, parasitic on the branches of shrubs and trees, or parasitic on another parasite
                       Back to 106
108Stems yellowish or reddish; usually parasitic on herbs; calyx and corolla distinct, with 5 segments in each whorlCONVOLVULACEAE
Stems green, green-red, or blackish, sometimes with brown scale leaves; usually parasitic on shrubs and trees; perianth of 6 similar segments in 2 whorls of 3
                       Back to 107
109Flowers bisexual, >20 mm long; stems ± terete and leaves either terete to linear, or broad and glabrous to tomentose but hairs not stellateLORANTHACEAE
Flowers unisexual, <2 mm long; either stems angular, or flattened and ± leafless, or stems terete and leaves broad and stellate-tomentose
                       Back to 107
110Leaves opposite or whorled111
Leaves alternate, sometimes crowded and appearing whorled
                       Back to 106
111Leaves toothed; one leaf at each node generally much smaller than the other; flowers solitaryGESNERIACEAE
Leaves entire; leaves at each node of similar size; inflorescence many-flowered
                       Back to 110
112Epiphytic herbs; leaves ± fleshy; inflorescence spicate; flowers <2 mm diam. (formerly Peperomiaceae)PIPERACEAE
Climbers; leaves thick and leathery; inflorescence umbellate; flowers >5 mm diam. (formerly Asclepiadaceae)
                       Back to 111
113Leaves compound, palmate or pinnateARALIACEAE
Leaves simple
                       Back to 110
114Either leaves with several longitudinal veins, or venation obscure, or leaves terete115
Leaves not terete, venation apparent but with only 1 longitudinal vein (lateral veins often present also)
                       Back to 113
115Leaves terete or without a constriction above middle of leaf; pseudobulbs with velamen often presentORCHIDACEAE
Leaves flat and with a constriction above the middle; pseudobulbs absent
                       Back to 114
116Leaves with midvein and several prominent secondary veins; lamina >10 mm wide and >30 mm long117
Leaves with only midvein apparent; lamina <10 mm wide and <30 mm long
                       Back to 114
117Milky latex exudes from broken stems; stipules present; usually epiphytic on rainforest treesMORACEAE
Milky latex absent; stipules absent; generally epiphytic on treeferns (formerly Quintiniaceae)
                       Back to 116
118Tendrils present119
Tendrils absent
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119Leaves with 3 or more longitudinal veins, the main veins sometimes joined by a fine reticulum120
Leaves with only one longitudinal vein or venation palmate, the fine venation reticulate
                       Back to 118
120Apex of leaves prolonged into a coil121
Apex of leaves not prolonged into a coil
                       Back to 119
121Leaves with a closed basal sheath; flowers small, inflorescence paniculateFLAGELLARIACEAE
Leaves with a short petiole, sheath absent; flowers large, solitary
                       Back to 120
122Tendrils borne on petiole, paired; 3 or 5 longitudinal veins joined by obvious fine reticulum; inflorescence umbel-like; fruit blackSMILACACEAE
Tendrils on stem opposite the leaves, solitary; longitudinal veins not conspicuously joined by fine reticulum; inflorescence paniculate; fruit red
                       Back to 120
123Leaves compound124
Leaves simple, often deeply lobed
                       Back to 119
124Leaves pinnately compound with an even number of pinnae (2–20)125
Leaves compound with an odd number of pinnae (3–9), leaves palmate, biternate, pedate or palmately 3-foliolate
                       Back to 123
125Leaves with 4–20 pinnae; stamens 10 or 5; fruit a legume or capsule, seeds not winged126
Leaves with 2 pinnae; stamens 4; fruit a 2-valved follicle, seeds winged
                       Back to 124
126Stipules present; flowers in racemes or solitary and <3 cm long; stamens 10; fruit a legumeFABACEAE - FABOIDEAE
Stipules absent; flowers solitary and >5 cm long; stamens 5; fruit a capsule
                       Back to 125
127Tendrils opposite leaves; palmate, pedate or 3-foliolate, pinnae usually 3–7; fruit a berryVITACEAE
Tendrils associated with inflorescence; leaves biternate with 9 pinnae; fruit an inflated capsule
                       Back to 124
128Tendrils opposite leaves; leaves pinnately veined; domatia regularly presentVITACEAE
Tendrils in leaf axils or beside or below the petiole base; leaves palmately veined; domatia usually absent
                       Back to 123
129Tendrils strictly axillary, unbranched; petioles usually with raised glands; flowers bisexual, ovary superiorPASSIFLORACEAE
Tendrils beside or below the base of the petiole, often branched; petioles without glands; flowers unisexual, ovary inferior
                       Back to 128
130Leaves compound with 2 or more pinnae131
Leaves simple or 1-foliolate (sometimes apparently absent)
                       Back to 118
131Leaves 2- or 3-pinnate or leaves ternately divided132
Leaves pinnate or palmate
                       Back to 130
132Prickles present on stems and on rachises of leavesFABACEAE - CAESALPINIOIDEAE
Prickles absent
                       Back to 131
133Rachis of leaves twining; leaves trailing and to several metres long; pinnae very numerousFILICOPSIDA
Petioles and petiolules often twining; leaves <30 cm long; pinnae usually 9–45
                       Back to 132
134Leaves opposite, ternately dividedRANUNCULACEAE
Leaves alternate, pinnately divided
                       Back to 133
135Leaves opposite or rarely whorled136
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 131
136Leaves with 2 or 5–17 pinnae, rarely 3 or more than 13BIGNONIACEAE
Leaves with 3 pinnae
                       Back to 135
137Petioles and petiolules elongated and often twining around supports; domatia absentRANUNCULACEAE
Petioles and petiolules short and not twining; domatia often present
                       Back to 136
138Prickles present on stems and leaves139
Prickles absent
                       Back to 135
139Pinnae with longitudinal veins; prickles ± straight, fine; leaves pinnate, often >50 cm longARECACEAE
Pinnae pinnately veined; prickles hooked, coarse; leaves palmate or pinnate, <20 cm long
                       Back to 138
140Stipules and stipels usually present, at least visible on young shoots; fruit a legume; pinnae 1–19FABACEAE - FABOIDEAE
Stipules and stipels absent; fruit a berry or drupe; pinnae 3–9
                       Back to 138
141Leaves with pinnae all similar, usually 3, rarely 4 or 5; petiole scabrous with bristly hairsARALIACEAE
Leaves pinnatifid or pinnate with distinct pinnae on lower rachis and a terminal segment often deeply lobed; petiole smooth
                       Back to 140
142Leaves alternate143
Leaves opposite or occasionally whorled
                       Back to 130
143Prickles or spines present144
Prickles and spines absent
                       Back to 142
144Plants apparently leafless or leaves ± succulent and falling relatively early145
Leaves normally developed and ± persistent, not ± succulent
                       Back to 143
145Stems either succulent and with groups of small spines at regular intervals over surface of swollen stems or numerous spines clustered on older stems; flowers ± solitary, >3 cm longCACTACEAE
Spines not clustered, stems not succulent but often ending in spines; flowers in globose heads, <1 cm long
                       Back to 144
146Leaves with 3 or 5 longitudinal veinsRIPOGONACEAE
Main veins pinnate
                       Back to 144
147Axillary spines presentMORACEAE
Prickles present on stem or at base of petiole
                       Back to 146
148Leaves 3–5-lobed; stipules present, linear, not spinescentROSACEAE
Leaves entire; stipules spinescent
                       Back to 147
149Either leaves apparently absent (reduced to scales, falling early or very sparse) or plants climbing by adventitious roots150
Plants with normally developed ± persistent leaves, not climbing by adventitious roots
                       Back to 143
150Leaves scale-like; adventitious roots sometimes present151
Leaves not scale-like, either normally-developed, or apparently absent; adventitious roots usually present
                       Back to 149
151Stems thread-like, leafless or almost so, forming tangled masses over the host and attached to the host by haustoria (only seedlings rooted in soil)152
Stems not thread-like, not forming tangled masses over the host, leaves scale-like or falling early, haustoria absent
                       Back to 150
152Stems yellowish or reddish; usually parasitic on herbs; calyx and corolla distinct, with 5 segments in each whorlCONVOLVULACEAE
Stems green, green-red, or blackish, sometimes with brown scale leaves; usually parasitic on shrubs and trees; perianth of 6 similar segments in 2 whorls
                       Back to 151
153Milky latex exudes from broken stems; adventitious roots absentEUPHORBIACEAE
Milky latex absent; adventitious roots present
                       Back to 151
154Aerial roots absent, stems twining; leaves either apparently absent, or if present then sparse and lamina linear to elliptic or oblanceolate and margins entirePOLYGALACEAE
Aerial roots present, stems sometimes twining; leaves abundant, not lamina linear to elliptic or oblanceolate and margins entire
                       Back to 150
155Leaves with a constriction above the middle; leaf base sheathingARACEAE
Leaves without a constriction above the middle; leaf base not sheathing, petiole present
                       Back to 154
156Leaves entire; stipules present on young stems and leaving a scar encircling the stem at each nodePIPERACEAE
Leaves palmately 3–5-lobed; stipules absent
                       Back to 155
157Leaves with 3–many longitudinal veins158
Leaves pinnately or palmately veined
                       Back to 149
158Leaves with base sheathing stem; margins with small spinescent teeth near base of leavesPANDANACEAE
Leaves without base sheathing stem; margins entire
                       Back to 157
159Leaves with many closely spaced ± parallel veinsLUZURIAGACEAE
Leaves with 3–7 widely spaced longitudinal veins
                       Back to 158
160Petioles stout and rather short; leaves with base of lamina rounded or tapering into petiole; most leaves usually regularly whorled or oppositeRIPOGONACEAE
Petioles slender and relatively long; leaves with base of lamina hastate or cordate; leaves always alternate
                       Back to 159
161Leaves ± triangular and margins regularly toothed to finely crenate, base generally cordate162
Leaves not ± triangular, if leaves toothed then base not cordate
                       Back to 157
162At least young stems, petioles and lower surface of leaves hairy; ocreae (sheaths of fused stipules) absent163
Leaves and stems ± glabrous; ocreae present at nodes
                       Back to 161
163Stems and leaves softly and densely hairy; petioles of many leaves twiningSCROPHULARIACEAE
Stems and petioles with scattered, bristly, stinging hairs; petioles not twining
                       Back to 162
164Leaves with petiole more than half as long as lamina; lamina ovate to ± circular, margins entire, lobed or angled and base often cordate; venation palmate or prominently 3-veined from near base165
Leaves with petiole less than half as long as lamina; lamina linear to ovate to oblanceolate, rarely base cordate, margins generally entire, occasionally toothed, crenate or lobed; venation pinnate, rarely obscurely 3-veined from base
                       Back to 161
165Flowers in heads surrounded by herbaceous involucral bracts; leaves palmately 5–7-angledASTERACEAE
Flowers not in heads surrounded by bracts; leaves palmately lobed or 2- or 3-angled
                       Back to 164
166Flowers bisexual, solitary or a few together, axillary or terminal167
Flowers unisexual; inflorescence with many flowers, axillary
                       Back to 165
167Leaves peltate; flowers spurredTROPAEOLACEAE
Leaves not peltate; flowers not spurred
                       Back to 166
168Corolla tubular; a small amount of milky latex present; either leaves hairy or margins palmately lobed or base sagittate or hastate; base of lamina usually cordateCONVOLVULACEAE
Perianth segments free; milky latex absent; leaves glabrous and margins either entire or with 1 or 2 angles; base of lamina not cordate
                       Back to 167
169Ovary inferior; carpels fused, 3; fruit a capsule, deeply 3-angledDIOSCOREACEAE
Ovary superior; carpels free or 1; fruit a drupe, not deeply angled
                       Back to 166
170Margins of leaves toothed, crenate or deeply lobed171
Margins of leaves entire
                       Back to 164
171Herbaceous climbers, lenticels absent; flowers >15 mm diam172
Woody climbers or twiners, lenticels raised and obvious on stem; flowers <5 mm diam
                       Back to 170
172Leaves toothed to crenate, ± sessile with base encircling stem; flowers yellowDILLENIACEAE
Leaves deeply lobed, petiolate; flowers white to pale blue
                       Back to 171
173Leaves scabrous below; teeth coarse and irregular; milky latex sometimes presentMORACEAE
Leaves not scabrous; teeth usually regular and fine, margins often ± crenate; latex absent
                       Back to 171
174Petioles with a distinct joint or pulvinus-like swelling at the apex or petioles thickened and twisted175
Petioles not thickened and twisted, lacking a distinct joint or pulvinus-like swelling at the apex, either absent or very short or if longer then not rigid
                       Back to 170
175Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic176
Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic
                       Back to 174
176Petioles without stipels and joint near apex; petiole base expanded into a horizontal ridge extending three-quarters of the way around the stem; corolla tubularARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Petioles with stipels and a joint near apex (leaf 1-foliolate); petiole base not expanded; corolla not tubular
                       Back to 175
177Leaves oblanceolate and tapering into the base, base sheathing the stemDILLENIACEAE
Leaves usually not oblanceolate, base not sheathing the stem
                       Back to 174
178Leaves hairy179
Leaves glabrous or almost so (sometimes stellate hairs present on new growth)
                       Back to 177
179Mature leaves <5 cm long, sessile or petiole <1 cm long; small twining plantsPITTOSPORACEAE
Mature leaves >5 cm long, petiole >1 cm long; woody climbers
                       Back to 178
180Leaves ± fleshy, ± broad-ovate, base cordate; axillary tubers borne at some nodesBASELLACEAE
Leaves not fleshy, linear to ovate, base not cordate; axillary tubers absent
                       Back to 178
181Leaves with translucent or opaque dots scattered over lower leaf surfacePRIMULACEAE
Leaves lacking such dots
                       Back to 180
182Leaves scabrous on lower surface; stellate scales absentMORACEAE
Leaves not scabrous; stellate scales sometimes present
                       Back to 181
183Brown stellate scales on young stems; tall climbers in coastal rainforest north from DorrigoANNONACEAE
Stellate scales absent; scrambling shrubs or twiners, rarely in rainforest; inland or coastal regions
                       Back to 182
184Petioles <10 mm long; widespread, rarely in rainforest185
Petioles >10 mm long; coastal species, sometimes in or near rainforest
                       Back to 183
185Flowers mostly absent, if present actinomorphic, <5 mm diam.; scrambling shrub of inland areasRHAMNACEAE
Flowers mostly present, zygomorphic, >5 mm diam.; twining shrubs, widespread
                       Back to 184
186Leaves whorled, scale-like and subtending linear to ovate cladodes in the axilsASPARAGACEAE
Leaves not whorled, scale-like and subtending linear to ovate cladodes in the axils
                       Back to 142
187Prickles or spines present188
Prickles or spines absent
                       Back to 186
188Spines present at many nodes189
Prickles scattered on stems
                       Back to 187
189Milky latex exudes from broken stems and petioles; spines straightAPOCYNACEAE
Milky latex absent; spines often curved
                       Back to 188
190Stems 4-angled; leaves pinnately veined, margins toothedVERBENACEAE
Stems not angled; leaves with 3 or 5 main longitudinal veins, margins entire
                       Back to 188
191Leaves at each node unequal in sizeGESNERIACEAE
Leaves at each node similar in size
                       Back to 187
192Leaves with numerous minute translucent oil dots, aromatic when crushed193
Leaves without translucent oil dots, not aromatic when crushed
                       Back to 191
193Rough stellate hairs present on stems and leaves; hypanthium present, perianth in 1 whorlMONIMIACEAE
Rusty hairs present, especially on young stems and leaves; hypanthium not present, perianth in 2 whorls
                       Back to 192
194Margins of adult leaves crenate or toothed195
Margins of adult leaves entire, sometimes juvenile leaves lobed or dissected
                       Back to 192
195Leaves with 3–5 veins rising from base of lamina, base ± cordate196
Leaves with only one main longitudinal vein
                       Back to 194
196Leaves glabrous or almost so, shiny above, central area of lamina pale greenRANUNCULACEAE
Leaves hairy, dull above, not variegated in colour
                       Back to 195
197Leaves slightly glossy above, dull below; stems forming short coils and abrupt knot-like bends around supportsCELASTRACEAE
Leaves very glossy above, moderately glossy below; stems twining in loose, elongated spirals
                       Back to 195
198Interpetiolar stipules present; domatia present on most leaves, sometimes minuteRUBIACEAE
Interpetiolar stipules absent or greatly reduced; domatia absent
                       Back to 194
199Petioles distinctly jointed a little above the baseOLEACEAE
Petioles lacking such a joint
                       Back to 198
200Stems 4-angledVERBENACEAE
Stems not angled
                       Back to 199
201Milky or clear latex absent; stamens 1–4 or if 5 then flowers strongly zygomorphic202
Milky or yellowish latex usually exudes from broken stems or petioles; stamens 5; flowers actinomorphic
                       Back to 200
202Leaves not lobed at base, hairy below203
Leaves sagittate to hastate, glabrous
                       Back to 201
203Leaves wrinkled above, whitish with stellate hairs below; flowers mauve or yellowBUDDLEJACEAE
Leaves smooth above, green below, hairs simple or glandular; flowers cream or yellow
                       Back to 202
204Either upper surface of leaves with a cluster of 2–20 minute raised glands at the base of lamina (hand lens needed) or leaves reduced and scale-like; pollen aggregated into pollinia (formerly Asclepiadaceae)APOCYNACEAE
Upper surface of leaves without any raised glands (leaves never reduced and scale-like); pollen either granular or rarely aggregated into pollinia
                       Back to 201
205Pollen granular, not aggregated into polliniaAPOCYNACEAE
Pollen aggregated into pollinia (formerly Asclepiadaceae)
                       Back to 204
206Leaves apparently absent, often reduced to scales207
Leaves present, not reduced to scales
                       Back to 104
207Saprophytic or parasitic herbs, usually without chlorophyll; the stems yellow or purple208
Chlorophyll present, stems sometimes with yellowish tinge if the plants are hemiparasitic on roots of other plants
                       Back to 206
208Flowers usually strongly zygomorphic; stamens 4 or 1209
Flowers actinomorphic; stamens 6 or rarely 3
                       Back to 207
209Ovary inferior; stamen 1ORCHIDACEAE
Ovary superior; stamens 4
                       Back to 208
210Cladodes succulent, often jointed211
Cladodes not succulent, either smooth or angular, sometimes flattened or winged
                       Back to 207
211Cladodes >10 mm diam., cylindrical, angular or flattened, bearing numerous spinesCACTACEAE
Cladodes <8 mm diam., ± cylindrical, spines absent
                       Back to 210
212Milky latex absent; cladodes jointed; erect or prostrate shrubs or subshrubsCHENOPODIACEAE
Milky latex present; cladodes sometimes jointed; scrambling shrubs
                       Back to 211
213Scale leaves alternate; fruit a capsule c. 4 mm long, seeds 3EUPHORBIACEAE
Leaves opposite; fruit a follicle 5–14 cm long, seeds numerous (formerly Asclepiadaceae)
                       Back to 212
214Cladodes winged or leaves reduced to spines215
Cladodes or branchlets not winged, either terete or flattened
                       Back to 210
215Wings on cladodes firm and brown; leaves reduced to spinesFABACEAE - FABOIDEAE
Wings herbaceous to membranous; plants not spinose
                       Back to 214
216Scale leaves subtending leaf-like cladodes, cladodes often clustered or whorledASPARAGACEAE
Leaves not subtending leaf-like cladodes
                       Back to 214
217Scale leaves in whorls of 4 or more and fused at the baseCASUARINACEAE
Scale leaves (or leaf scars) alternate or opposite
                       Back to 216
218Spines regularly present along adult stems219
Spines not regularly present on adult stems, but branches sometimes ending in spines or spines present on juvenile growth
                       Back to 217
219Spines alternateRUTACEAE
Spines opposite
                       Back to 218
220Leaves opposite221
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 218
221Herbs in swamps; flowers unisexualRUBIACEAE
Shrubs or subshrubs, not in swamps; flowers bisexual
                       Back to 220
222Flowers 3–4 mm long; shrubs; fruit brownish, not succulent; at least some leaves normally-developed on plantLAMIACEAE
Flowers either <2 mm long, or >6 mm long; subshrubs, prostrate or erect; fruit red to orange, succulent; no leaves normally developed
                       Back to 221
223Erect subshrubs; flowers 8–10 mm long, white; western speciesLOGANIACEAE
Prostrate subshrubs; flowers 1–2 mm long, greenish; high altitude species
                       Back to 222
224Flowers unisexual, borne in clusters at almost every node over the whole plant (dead flower parts usually persistent)EUPHORBIACEAE
Flowers bisexual, borne mainly towards the ends of branches (dead flower parts not usually persistent)
                       Back to 220
225Either ovary inferior, or ovary superior and then fruiting pedicel enlarged and often succulentSANTALACEAE
Ovary superior, but fruiting pedicel neither enlarged nor succulent
                       Back to 224
226Scale leaves encircling stem and usually a few millimetres apart; flowers small, pink and in large terminal paniclesTAMARICACEAE
Leaves not scale leaves encircling stem and usually more than a few millimetres apart; flowers and inflorescences not large terminal panicles
                       Back to 225
227Flowers bisexual, strongly zygomorphic228
Flowers unisexual, actinomorphic
                       Back to 226
228Flowers blue; inner 2 sepals large and petaloid; fruit a capsulePOLYGALACEAE
Flowers yellow, orange or rarely purple; sepals not petaloid, shortly tubular and ± equal; fruit a legume
                       Back to 227
229Shrubs or small trees 1–4 m high; flowers solitary or in short, few-flowered racemes; fruit a berryCAPPARACEAE
Shrubs with tangled branches; flowers in interrupted, spike-like racemes; fruit an indehiscent nut
                       Back to 227
230Leaves consistently whorled231
Leaves alternate or opposite or leaf solitary
                       Back to 206
231Woody plants, trees or erect shrubs232
Herbs or prostrate or hemispherical subshrubs
                       Back to 230
232Milky latex or coloured resin exudes from cut or broken twigs or petioles233
Neither milky latex nor coloured resin exudes from cut or broken twigs or petioles
                       Back to 231
233Milky latex exudes from cut stems or petiolesAPOCYNACEAE
Yellowish to red resin exudes from cut stems or petioles
                       Back to 232
234Leaves with 5–7 main longitudinal veinsERICACEAE-STYPHELIOIDEAE
Leaves with only 1 main longitudinal vein
                       Back to 232
235Leaves either <3 cm long, or if 3–6 cm long then neither rigid nor pungent-pointed236
Leaves either >6 cm long or if 3–6 cm long then rigid and pungent-pointed
                       Back to 234
236Whorls usually with 3 or 4 leaves237
Whorls with 5–7 leaves
                       Back to 235
237Leaves 3–6 mm long and ± tereteERICACEAE
Leaves >6 mm long or if less then not ± terete
                       Back to 236
238Stems 4-angledLAMIACEAE
Stems not 4-angled
                       Back to 237
239Leaves in whorls of 3, rarely more240
Leaves in whorls of 4 (rarely 3 or 5)
                       Back to 238
240Plants ± white-tomentose; leaves sessileLAMIACEAE
Plants never white-tomentose; leaves mostly petiolate, if sessile then plants glabrous or hairy
                       Back to 239
241Fruit a legume; flowers zygomorphicFABACEAE - FABOIDEAE
Fruit a drupe; flowers actinomorphic
                       Back to 240
242Whorls consistently with 6 `leaves' (actually 2 sessile 3-foliolate leaves); fruit a capsule (formerly Baueraceae)CUNONIACEAE
Whorls with 5–7 leaves (phyllodes); fruit a legume
                       Back to 236
243Leaves mesomorphic244
Leaves scleromorphic
                       Back to 235
244Stipular sheaths present on apex of shootsRUBIACEAE
Stipular sheaths absent
                       Back to 243
245Stems terete; terminal buds scalyPITTOSPORACEAE
Stems angular; terminal buds not scaly
                       Back to 244
246Terminal buds scaly; juvenile leaves whorled, toothed, adult leaves alternate, entireCORYNOCARPACEAE
Terminal buds not scaly; all leaves whorled, entire or toothed
                       Back to 243
247Interpetiolar stipules present; leaves glaucous below; flowers in separated, dense, ± globose clustersCUNONIACEAE
Stipules absent; leaves not glaucous below; inflorescence racemose or flowers in heads surrounded by bracts
                       Back to 246
248Leaves succulent and either terete or about as wide as long; leaves usually in whorls of 4249
Leaves not succulent; leaves opposite or in whorls of 2 to many
                       Back to 231
249Leaves terete, 3–7 mm long; calyx and corolla presentFRANKENIACEAE
Leaves flat, about as long as wide, 5–15 mm long; flowers naked
                       Back to 248
250Leaves regularly in whorls of 3 or leaves opposite; flowers purple to blue, c. 8–10 mm longLYTHRACEAE
Leaves in whorls of 4 or more, sometimes some in 3s; flowers usually greenish to white, mostly <5 mm long
                       Back to 248
251Leaves fused into a basal tube with only apices free; stems longitudinally groovedSPHENOPSIDA
Leaves not fused into a basal tube with only apices free; stems rarely grooved
                       Back to 250
252Stems 4-angled; ovary inferiorRUBIACEAE
Stems not 4-angled; ovary superior
                       Back to 251
253Perianth in 1 whorl; stipules absentAIZOACEAE
Sepals and petals present; stipules present
                       Back to 252
254Leaves usually with reticulate venation; vascular bundles open, that is, secondary thickening occurs; taproot present, at least in seedlings; flower parts usually in whorls of 4 or 5; embryo mostly with 2 cotyledons (dicots)255
Leaves usually with parallel venation; vascular bundles closed, that is, no secondary thickening occurs; root system fibrous; flower parts usually in whorls of 3; embryo mostly with 1 cotyledon (monocots)
                       Back to 230
255Leaves compound, with 2 or more distinct pinnae256
Leaves 1-foliolate or simple (sometimes lamina deeply lobed but not divided into discrete leaflets)
                       Back to 254
256Leaves either 2- or 3-pinnate or biternate257
Leaves either 1-pinnate or palmate
                       Back to 255
Shrubs or trees
                       Back to 256
258Ovary superior; flowers zygomorphic or actinomorphic259
Ovary inferior; most flowers actinomorphic, rarely all zygomorphic
                       Back to 257
259Flowers zygomorphic; fruit a nut; leaves 2- or 3-pinnatePAPAVERACEAE
Flowers actinomorphic; fruit a follicle; leaves biternate (formerly Malaceae)
                       Back to 258
260Upper part of petioles usually with reduced pinnae or flaps of tissue; flowers in headsASTERACEAE
Reduced pinnae or flaps of tissue absent (the lowest pinnae largest); flowers in umbels
                       Back to 258
261Pinnae with a terminal pinnule or segment262
Pinnae without a terminal pinnule or segment
                       Back to 257
262Leaves with jointed rachis; ovary inferior or superior565
Leaves without jointed rachis; ovary superior
                       Back to 261
263Pinnules toothed to subentire264
Pinnules entire
                       Back to 262
264Leaves regularly 2-pinnate; leaves glabrous except for stellate hairs on petioles; fruit an indehiscent drupeMELIACEAE
Leaves irregularly 2–4-pinnate; lower surface of leaves either hairy (hairs not stellate) or strongly glaucous; fruit dehiscent
                       Back to 263
265Fruit a capsule, covered with irritant hairs; leaves irregularly 2-pinnateSAPINDACEAE
Fruit a follicle, glabrous; leaves irregularly 2–4-pinnate
                       Back to 264
266Leaves without oil dots, lower surface pale, silky; leaves deeply 2- or 3-pinnatifidPROTEACEAE
Leaves with oil dots, lower surface either glabrous or with scattered hairs; leaves regularly or irregularly 2-pinnate
                       Back to 263
267Flowers zygomorphic; spines or prickles presentFABACEAE - CAESALPINIOIDEAE
Flowers actinomorphic; spines and prickles present or absent
                       Back to 261
268Trees and shrubs269
Herbaceous plants
                       Back to 256
269Leaves opposite, sometimes apparently whorled270
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 268
270Oil dots present in leaves, leaves aromatic when crushedRUTACEAE
Oil dots absent, leaves not aromatic when crushed
                       Back to 269
271Interpetiolar stipules present272
Stipules absent
                       Back to 270
272Margins of pinnae toothed; stipules not resinousCUNONIACEAE
Margins of pinnae entire; stipules resinous (formerly Eucryphiaceae)
                       Back to 271
273Leaves sessile, 3-foliolate; pinnae <1.5 cm long (formerly Baueraceae)CUNONIACEAE
Leaves petiolate, 3–11-foliolate; pinnae 2–12 cm long
                       Back to 271
274Leaves with small stalked glands on rachis between petiolulesADOXACEAE
Leaves without glands on rachis
                       Back to 273
275Cultivated trees, sometimes naturalized; fruit dry, wingedACERACEAE
Shrub in rainforest; fruit succulent, not winged
                       Back to 274
276Stipules present and pinnae regularly toothed277
Either stipules absent or if stipules present then pinnae not regularly toothed
                       Back to 269
277Prickles absent278
Prickles usually present; stipules ± linear; rachis not winged
                       Back to 276
278Stipules >1 cm wide; rachis winged279
Stipules not prominent, <3 mm wide; rachis not winged (formerly Malaceae)
                       Back to 277
279Stipules free, ± semicircular, 1–2 cm long; fruit drupaceous (formerly Davidsoniaceae)CUNONIACEAE
Stipules fused and encircling the stem, >5 cm long; fruit capsular
                       Back to 278
280Fruit a legume or samara; stipules mostly present on new growth but often shed early281
Fruit variable but neither a legume nor a samara; stipules absent or inconspicuous
                       Back to 276
281Fruit a samara282
Fruit a legume
                       Back to 280
282Leaves pinnately compoundSIMAROUBACEAE
Leaves palmately compound with 5 or more pinnae or pinnae 3 and pinnae with silvery scales below
                       Back to 281
283Stamens 10 and free, either unequal or some reduced and sterileFABACEAE - CAESALPINIOIDEAE
Stamens 10, free or variously united, equal in size, all fertile
                       Back to 281
284Oil dots present in leaves, leaves aromatic when crushedRUTACEAE
Oil dots absent, leaves not aromatic when crushed
                       Back to 280
285Domatia present, sometimes small and inconspicuous286
Domatia absent
                       Back to 284
286Petioles and stems exuding a clear sap when cut; fruit an indehiscent drupeANACARDIACEAE
Petioles and stems not exuding a clear sap when cut; fruit usually a dehiscent capsule
                       Back to 285
287Pinnae regularly toothedSAPINDACEAE
Pinnae entire (rarely a few teeth in juveniles)
                       Back to 286
288Either stamens fused into a tube or seeds winged; leaves either with >10 leaflets, or with a terminal pinna present, or pinnae opposite and rachis without a terminal spurMELIACEAE
Stamens not fused into a tube and seeds not winged; leaves mostly <10 leaflets and rachis ending in a terminal spur, true terminal leaflet absent, pinnae often subopposite
                       Back to 287
289Leaves with main rachis jointed at the point where the pinnae are attached, the pinnae usually oppositeARALIACEAE
Leaves without jointed rachis
                       Back to 285
290Leaves with either a terminal spur at end of rachis (pinnae alternate, subopposite or opposite), or fruit a 2–6-winged capsuleSAPINDACEAE
Leaves without terminal spur on rachis (pinnae mostly opposite); fruit variable but not a winged capsule
                       Back to 289
291Pinnae toothed, lobed or dissected292
Pinnae (or leaves) with entire margins
                       Back to 290
292Pinnae with spinose teeth; adult leaves usually >30 cm long293
Pinnae with blunt teeth or lobes; adult leaves usually <30 cm long
                       Back to 291
293Leaves pinnate throughout; rachis not winged294
Leaves pinnatisect in upper part; rachis winged
                       Back to 292
294Leaves with 12–30 pinnae, without a terminal pinnaAKANIACEAE
Leaves with 5–13 pinnae, with a terminal pinna
                       Back to 293
295Leaves pinnate and simple on the same shoot; fruit a folliclePROTEACEAE
All leaves pinnate; fruit a drupe or capsule
                       Back to 291
296Pinnae with an obvious swelling at junction of petiolule with rachis, terminal pinna always present; fruit a drupeBURSERACEAE
Pinnae without a swelling at junction of petiolule and rachis, terminal pinna usually not present; fruit a capsule
                       Back to 295
297Leaves pinnate without a terminal pinna298
Leaves palmate or pinnate with a terminal pinna
                       Back to 268
298Leaves opposite; stipules interpetiolar; pinnae 2–24ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Leaves alternate; paired stipules usually present at base of each petiole; pinnae >2
                       Back to 297
299Leaves dotted with oil glandsRUTACEAE
Leaves without oil glands
                       Back to 297
300Leaves with 3 pinnae arranged at the apex of a relatively long petiole; pinnae ± obcordate, margins entire; fruit a capsuleOXALIDACEAE
Leaves not with 3 pinnae arranged at the apex of a relatively long petiole; pinnae not obcordate, margins not entire; fruit various, rarely a capsule
                       Back to 299
301Leaves palmate with 3–11 pinnae, petiolule of terminal pinna ± as long as petiolules of lateral pinnae302
Leaves pinnate with 3 or more pinnae, petiolule of terminal pinna longer than those of lateral pinnae
                       Back to 300
302Leaves irregularly palmately dissected, pinnae irregularly lobedRANUNCULACEAE
Leaves regularly divided into pinnae, margins entire or regularly toothed
                       Back to 301
303Either pinnae entire or stipules spinescent, the pinnae usually with glandular hairsCAPPARACEAE
Pinnae toothed, stipules not spinescent
                       Back to 302
304Flowers unisexual, <5 mm diam.; stipules not fused to petioleCANNABACEAE
Flowers bisexual, >10 mm diam.; stipules fused to petiole
                       Back to 303
305Stipules present306
Stipules absent, petioles sometimes dilated at the base
                       Back to 301
306Pinnae toothed, the teeth >1 mm deep; flowers actinomorphicROSACEAE
Pinnae entire or with teeth <1 mm deep or pinnae lobed or deeply dissected; flowers zygomorphic
                       Back to 305
307Flowers in heads surrounded by involucral bracts (leaves often deeply pinnatisect)ASTERACEAE
Flowers not in heads surrounded by involucral bracts; leaves not deeply pinnatisect
                       Back to 305
308Pinnae 3, usually deeply dissected; fruit a cluster of achenesRANUNCULACEAE
Pinnae more than 3; fruit not an achene
                       Back to 307
309Flowers in umbels or umbellate clusters310
Flowers not in umbels
                       Back to 308
310Ovary inferiorAPIACEAE
Ovary superior
                       Back to 309
311Leaves succulent or spinose312
Leaves neither succulent nor spinose
                       Back to 309
312Leaves succulent, oppositeCRASSULACEAE
Leaves spinose, alternate
                       Back to 311
313Leaves tasting like mustard; petals mostly yellow or white; stamens usually 6BRASSICACEAE
Leaves not tasting like mustard; petals blue; stamens 5
                       Back to 311
314Flowers enclosed in an invaginated floral axis; fruit multiple, a syconium or figMORACEAE
Flowers not enclosed in an invaginated floral axis; fruit not a syconium or fig
                       Back to 255
315Flowers unisexual, arranged in a cyathium; white latex presentEUPHORBIACEAE
Flowers either bisexual, or if unisexual then not arranged in a cyathium; white latex either absent or if rarely present then flowers bisexual
                       Back to 314
316Ocreae (sheaths of fused stipules) present around the petiole and stemPOLYGONACEAE
Ocreae absent
                       Back to 315
317Ovary superior or the flower naked318
Ovary inferior or half-inferior
                       Back to 316
318Carpels ± free, fruit usually separating into distinct carpels, that is, 2 or more ovaries present (sometimes carpels enclosed in hypanthium and `ovary' apparently solitary)319
Carpels fused or the carpel solitary, that is, ovary and fruit solitary
                       Back to 317
319Milky or yellowish latex exudes from broken stems320
Milky or yellowish latex absent
                       Back to 318
320Pollen granular, not aggregated into pollinia; fruit black or more often brightly coloured, mostly drupaceous, sometimes a pair of tardily dehiscent folliclesAPOCYNACEAE
Pollen aggregated into pollinia; fruit a pair of green or brownish dehiscent follicles (formerly Asclepiadaceae)
                       Back to 319
321Herbs, sometimes trailing322
Shrubs or trees
                       Back to 319
322Petals fused into a tube323
Petals free
                       Back to 321
323Leaves oppositeLAMIACEAE
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 322
324Carpels equal in number to the petals; leaves opposite, succulentCRASSULACEAE
Carpels much more numerous than the petals; leaves usually alternate, not succulent
                       Back to 322
325Leaves oppositeMONIMIACEAE
Leaves alternate, sometimes ± whorled
                       Back to 321
326Either stamens 5 and alternate with 5 staminodes or stamens numerous and on an androgynophoreMALVACEAE
Stamens >5 but not on an androgynophore
                       Back to 325
327Sepals and petals modified into calyptras; carpels immersed in the receptacleEUPOMATIACEAE
Calyptras not formed; carpels not immersed in the receptacle
                       Back to 326
328Fruit a cluster of berries; leaves with fine oil dots and aromatic when crushed329
Fruit otherwise; leaves without oil dots, not aromatic when crushed
                       Back to 327
329Flowers mostly unisexual; fruit blue to blackish; leaves tasting like p:epperWINTERACEAE
Flowers bisexual; fruit orange to red; leaves not tasting like pepper
                       Back to 328
330Stamens perigynous331
Stamens hypogynous
                       Back to 328
331Receptacles urn-shaped and almost enclosing carpels; fruit a number of individual achenes enclosed in a false fruit or `hip'ROSACEAE
Receptacles saucer-shaped; fruit a cluster of follicles (formerly Malaceae)
                       Back to 330
332Individual fruit dehiscent, follicles; carpels always completely freeDILLENIACEAE
Individual fruit not dehiscent, drupes; carpels often united by their common style
                       Back to 330
333Leaves toothed; individual black drupes seated on swollen red receptacleOCHNACEAE
Leaves entire; individual drupes either red, orange or brownish, receptacle neither swollen nor red
                       Back to 332
334Leaves usually <5 cm long and with <10 pairs of secondary veins; western speciesSURIANACEAE
Leaves mostly >5 cm long and with >10 pairs of secondary veins; coastal species
                       Back to 333
335Fertile stamens more than twice as many as sepals or tepals (tepals as in Proteaceae, Moraceae)336
Fertile stamens to twice as many as sepals or tepals
                       Back to 318
336Leaves alternate337
Leaves opposite
                       Back to 335
337Leaves modified to phyllodes, identified by the extrafloral nectary on the upper edge; carpel 1; fruit a legume or a lomentumFABACEAE - MIMOSOIDEAE
Leaves not modified into phyllodes; carpels 1 or more; fruit neither a legume nor lomentum
                       Back to 336
338Either all flowers unisexual or unisexual and bisexual flowers occurring together in the same inflorescence339
All flowers bisexual
                       Back to 337
339Sepals fused and enclosing the bud, splitting into 2 or 3 lobes; carpel 1; leaves tasting like pepperWINTERACEAE
Sepals or perianth otherwise; carpel 1 or 3–indefinite; leaves not tasting like pepper
                       Back to 338
340Carpels 3, fused; styles 3EUPHORBIACEAE
Carpels 1, or >3 (rarely 3 and with 1 style)
                       Back to 339
341Sepals and petals present; carpels 4 or 5, rarely 3, central column absentEBENACEAE
Either sepals or petals absent; carpels solitary or >3 and then united around a central column
                       Back to 340
342Perianth represented by blunt teeth; carpels 4–7 or >20, united around a central column; fruit without spinesGYROSTEMONACEAE
Perianth sepaloid, 2–3 mm long; carpel solitary; fruit covered by spines
                       Back to 341
343Carpel solitary; fruit a drupe (formerly Amygdalaceae)ROSACEAE
Carpels >2, fused together; fruit variable
                       Back to 338
344Carpels incompletely fused, either free at the apex or carpels united only by their gynobasic style345
Carpels fused throughout, except sometimes in upper style and stigma
                       Back to 343
345Carpels free at the apex, ovules and seeds visibleRESEDACEAE
Carpels united only by their gynobasic style
                       Back to 344
346Filaments of stamens fused, forming a tube around the styles, stigmas protruding above the tubeMALVACEAE
Filaments free or almost so, not forming a tube
                       Back to 344
347Sepals 2 or 3, sometimes united into a calyptra348
Sepals 4 or more
                       Back to 346
348Flowers solitary on long scapes; placentation parietalPAPAVERACEAE
Flowers in few- to many-flowered cymes, cymose panicles or heads, rarely solitary in leaf axils; placentation basal or free-central
                       Back to 347
349Ovary on a gynophoreCAPPARACEAE
Ovary ± sessile
                       Back to 347
350Rigid spreading shrubs; leaves <5 mm wide351
Erect shrubs; leaves >5 mm wide
                       Back to 349
351Leaves deeply and irregularly pinnatisect, glabrous (former Peganaceae)NITRARIACEAE
Leaves entire, covered with appressed hairs
                       Back to 350
352Placentation parietal; leaf margins entire or bluntly angularSALICACEAE
Placentation axile; leaf margins usually finely or coarsely toothed
                       Back to 350
353Anthers opening by terminal valves or poresELAEOCARPACEAE
Anthers opening by longitudinal slits
                       Back to 352
354Shrubs or treesMONIMIACEAE
Herbs or small shrubs
                       Back to 336
355Leaves gland-dotted, not succulent, bright greenHYPERICACEAE
Leaves not gland-dotted, succulent or often greyish and apparently whorled
                       Back to 354
356Perianth in 1 whorl or the flower naked357
Perianth in 2 whorls
                       Back to 335
357Flowers naked, perianth absent358
Flowers with perianth present
                       Back to 356
358Trees with alternate leaves; flowers in catkinsSALICACEAE
Herbs with opposite leaves
                       Back to 357
359Flowers bisexual, in dense terminal spikesPIPERACEAE
Flowers unisexual, axillary, solitary or in pairs
                       Back to 358
360Perianth segments scariousAMARANTHACEAE
Perianth segments herbaceous or petaloid
                       Back to 357
361Stamens 8–10362
Stamens <8
                       Back to 360
362Leaves opposite363
Leaves alternate and/or radical
                       Back to 361
Trees or shrubs
                       Back to 362
364Flowers with tubular hypanthium, several times longer than ovary; leaves usually <6 cm longTHYMELAEACEAE
Flowers with hypanthium or perianth about as long as the ovary; leaves >6 cm long
                       Back to 363
365Flowers unisexual366
Flowers bisexual
                       Back to 362
366Style simple; fruit a winged capsuleSAPINDACEAE
Style branched or styles as many as the carpels; fruit not a winged capsule
                       Back to 365
367Carpels 3, fused, styles 3; fruit usually 3-lobedEUPHORBIACEAE
Carpels 2 or >3 and united around a central column; styles free, 2–7, or fused and 4–7-branched; fruit 2- or >3-lobed
                       Back to 366
Carpels usually 3–5
                       Back to 365
369Herbs or subshrubsAIZOACEAE
Shrubs or small trees
                       Back to 368
370Plants of coastal areas; seeds without arilsSALICACEAE
Plants of inland areas; seeds with a fleshy red aril
                       Back to 369
371Styles 2 or more, or the style branched372
Style simple, unbranched (stigma sometimes lobed)
                       Back to 361
372Ovary usually 3-locular, rarely 2–7-locularEUPHORBIACEAE
Ovary 1-locular
                       Back to 371
373Herbs with opposite leaves, the leaf bases usually fused; stipules sometimes present; glabrous or with a few simple hairsCARYOPHYLLACEAE
Trees, shrubs or herbs with leaves alternate (rarely opposite, and if so, without stipules, the leaf bases not fused and hairs tubercled)
                       Back to 372
374Shrubs or trees; mostly in or near rainforest375
Herbs or small shrubs; widespread, rarely in rainforest
                       Back to 373
375Fruit solitary or paired, drupaceous; leaves usually 3-veined from baseULMACEAE
Fruit crowded and forming a multiple fruit; leaves not 3-veined from base
                       Back to 374
376Perianth tubular (at least in bud) or tubular hypanthium present377
Perianth not tubular (sometimes fused at the base and forming a shallow cup)
                       Back to 371
377Stamens always 6; petals 6; calyx represented by a cup which enlarges in fruitOLACACEAE
Stamens mostly 2–5, sometimes 6–8; calyx not a cup which enlarges in fruit
                       Back to 376
378Upper part of perianth tube falling, the lower part persisting and enclosing the fruitNYCTAGINACEAE
                       Back to 377
379Stamens 2; inserted on the rim of the tubular hypanthiumTHYMELAEACEAE
Stamens >3; not inserted on the rim of a tubular hypanthium
                       Back to 378
380Trees or shrubs; stamens opposite to and fused with the perianth segmentsPROTEACEAE
Herbs or subshrubs; stamens alternating with the perianth segments
                       Back to 379
381Stamens opposite the perianth segments382
Stamens alternating with the perianth segments
                       Back to 376
382Either trees or tall shrubs with toothed leaves, often with stinging hairs, or herbs sometimes with stinging hairsURTICACEAE
Shrubs with entire leaves (glabrous or hairy but without stinging hairs)
                       Back to 381
383Leaves opposite; herbsAIZOACEAE
Leaves alternate; small trees, shrubs or subshrubs
                       Back to 381
384Leaves with a rusty stellate tomentumMALVACEAE
Leaves glabrous or hairy with simple hairs
                       Back to 383
385Flowers unisexual; fruit succulent, not winged386
Flowers bisexual; fruit dry, winged
                       Back to 384
386Trees; leaves with domatiaPENNANTIACEAE
Subshrubs; leaves without domatia
                       Back to 385
387Petals free388
Petals fused into a tube, rarely split down one side or at base
                       Back to 356
388Flowers zygomorphic389
Flowers actinomorphic
                       Back to 387
389Sepals 2; soft herbs with semisucculent, highly dissected leavesPAPAVERACEAE
Sepals or perianth segments 4 or 5; shrubs or herbs, but not with semisucculent, highly dissected leaves
                       Back to 388
390Two lateral sepals large and petaloidPOLYGALACEAE
Sepals not with two large and petaloid lateral sepals
                       Back to 389
391Shrubs with stout spines and fruit a berry <5 mm long; flowers very slightly zygomorphicVIOLACEAE
Herbs or shrubs, rarely with spines and then fruit a legume; flowers strongly zygomorphic
                       Back to 390
392Stamens 5, all fertile, staminodes absent; either sepal or petal spurred393
Stamens and staminodes when present totalling 10; uppermost sepal sometimes spurred
                       Back to 391
393Lowermost petal spurred at base, sepals not spurred; leaves not succulent; herbs or shrubsVIOLACEAE
Petals not spurred, uppermost sepal spurred; leaves ± succulent; semisucculent shrubs
                       Back to 392
394Carpels 3 or 5; uppermost sepal often spurred395
Carpel 1; uppermost sepal not spurred
                       Back to 392
395Carpels 3; leaves peltateTROPAEOLACEAE
Carpels 5; leaves not peltate
                       Back to 394
396Petals dissimilar in size and shape, consisting of one large posterior standard, inserted to the outside of 2 lateral wings and 2 fused segments (keel) that enclose the stamensFABACEAE - FABOIDEAE
Petals ± similar in size and shape, posterior petal innermost, petals usually not fused
                       Back to 394
397Woody plants398
                       Back to 388
398Leaves with oil dots, leaves aromatic when crushed399
Leaves without oil dots, not distinctly aromatic when crushed
                       Back to 397
399Fruit a capsule or berry; flowers >3 mm long: disc present between stamens and ovary; oil dots relatively largeRUTACEAE
Fruit drupaceous; flowers 1–2 mm long; disc absent; oil dots minute
                       Back to 398
400Disc present between the stamens and the ovary401
Disc absent
                       Back to 398
401Stamens 8–12SIMAROUBACEAE
Stamens 4 or 5
                       Back to 400
402All flowers unisexual403
Either all flowers bisexual or rarely some unisexual
                       Back to 400
403Leaves either entire or toothed to crenate, if teeth spinose then leaves not glossy and fruit a capsule; fruit usually capsular, rarely drupaceous or a berryEUPHORBIACEAE
Leaves with spinose teeth and glossy; fruit drupaceous
                       Back to 402
404Stamens 2OLEACEAE
Stamens >2
                       Back to 402
405Stamens hypogynous406
Stamens perigynous
                       Back to 404
406Anthers dehiscing by terminal pores or valves407
Anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits
                       Back to 405
407Stems with 3-branched spinesBERBERIDACEAE
Stems without spines
                       Back to 406
408Small shrubs; leaves <2 cm longELAEOCARPACEAE
Trees or tall shrubs; leaves >4 cm long
                       Back to 407
409Stamens 4 or 5410
Stamens 8 or 10
                       Back to 406
410Stamens alternating with staminodes411
Staminodes absent
                       Back to 409
411Leaves stellate-hairy; fruit a capsuleMALVACEAE
Leaves glabrous; fruit a drupe
                       Back to 410
412Anthers with a terminal appendage; shrubs with stout spines; flowers slightly zygomorphicVIOLACEAE
Appendages absent; trees or spinose shrubs, spines fine; flowers actinomorphic
                       Back to 410
413Leaves opposite414
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 409
414Interpetiolar stipules present; leaves not lobed, margins toothedCUNONIACEAE
Stipules absent; leaves palmately lobed, otherwise margins entire
                       Back to 413
415Leaves glabrous; rainforest species416
Leaves covered with appressed hairs; western species
                       Back to 413
416Leaves usually <3.5 cm long; fruit red, <9 mm long; petals whiteERYTHROXYLACEAE
Leaves usually >3.5 cm long; fruit black, >9 mm long; petals yellow
                       Back to 415
417Stamens alternating with the sepal lobes; stipules presentRHAMNACEAE
Stamens alternating with the petals; stipules absent
                       Back to 405
418Sepals 2 or 3419
Sepals or outer perianth segments 4 or more
                       Back to 397
Sepals 3
                       Back to 418
420Flowers with tubular hypanthium bearing 4–6 sepals, 4–6 appendages and 4–6 petalsLYTHRACEAE
Flowers without hypanthium
                       Back to 418
421Flowers unisexualEUPHORBIACEAE
Flowers bisexual
                       Back to 420
422Leaves dotted with oil glandsRUTACEAE
Leaves without oil dots
                       Back to 421
423Fruit a schizocarp splitting into awned mericarpsGERANIACEAE
Fruit a siliqua, silicula or capsule
                       Back to 422
424Leaves opposite (sometimes apparently whorled)425
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 423
425Ovary 2–5-locular; leaves Y-shapedZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Ovary 1-locular; leaves not Y-shaped
                       Back to 424
426Placentation free-central; mostly herbs, rarely dwarf shrubs; leaves generally green, or if greyish then not salt encrustedCARYOPHYLLACEAE
Placentation parietal; dwarf shrubs; leaves generally greyish because of salt encrusted on surface
                       Back to 425
427Ovary 1-locular; leaves and stems with mixed glandular and non-glandular hairsCAPPARACEAE
Ovary with 2 or more loculi; plants either glabrous or hairy but hairs not glandular
                       Back to 424
428Sepals 4 and petals 4, stamens usually 6; fruit a siliqua or siliculaBRASSICACEAE
Sepals and petals 5 or perianth in whorls of 5, stamens 5 or 8; fruit capsular
                       Back to 427
429Ovary 5-locular; flowers blue or yellow; leaves mostly caulineLINACEAE
Ovary 3-locular; flowers white or pinkish; leaves mostly basal
                       Back to 428
430Leaves alternate or all basal431
Leaves opposite
                       Back to 387
431Stamens epipetalous432
Stamens not epipetalous
                       Back to 430
432Stylar cup around the stigma; anthers fused to each other around styleGOODENIACEAE
Cup absent; anthers not fused to each other
                       Back to 431
433Flowers unisexualEBENACEAE
Flowers bisexual
                       Back to 432
434Milky latex exudes from broken stems or petiolesAPOCYNACEAE
Milky latex absent
                       Back to 433
435Shrubs with leaves longitudinally veined; leaves scleromorphicERICACEAE-STYPHELIOIDEAE
Either leaves not longitudinally veined, or if leaves with >1 longitudinal vein then leaves herbaceous
                       Back to 434
436Style more or less gynobasic, the ovary lobed; either hairs tubercular, or plants glabrous and succulent; inflorescence cymoseBORAGINACEAE
Style terminal; tubercular hairs absent and plants not succulent; inflorescence not cymose
                       Back to 435
437Fertile stamens 5, opposite the corolla lobes; 5 staminodes sometimes present also438
Stamens 5 or fewer, alternating with the corolla lobes
                       Back to 436
438Staminodes 5, alternating with 5 stamensSAPOTACEAE
Staminodes absent
                       Back to 437
439Herbs or scandent shrubs, if the latter then calyx glandular and flowers >10 mm longPLUMBAGINACEAE
Trees or shrubs, if shrubs then glandular hairs absent and flowers <10 mm long
                       Back to 438
440Ovary 1-locular; ± semi-aquatic herbs either with radical leaves with long petiole and cordate to sagittate lamina, or underground dissected leaves with insect-trapping bladders441
Ovary with 2 or more loculi; leaves not dissected or underground leaves with insect-trapping bladders, plants not aquatic
                       Back to 437
441Flowers actinomorphic; stamens 5; bladders absentMENYANTHACEAE
Corolla 2-lipped; stamens 2; leaves with bladders
                       Back to 440
442Flowers in compact spikes443
Inflorescence otherwise
                       Back to 440
443Herbs with leaves in basal rosettes; dense inflorescence solitary on long leafless scapesPLANTAGINACEAE
Subshrubs with alternate leaves on branches; inflorescences often clustered near ends of branches
                       Back to 442
444Ovary (placenta) oblique in the flower; flowers usually actinomorphic or almost soSOLANACEAE
Ovary and placenta straight; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic
                       Back to 442
445Herbs, sometimes woody at base446
Shrubs or trees
                       Back to 444
446Stamens 4; flowers zygomorphic, corolla usually 2-lipped (stamens 5 in Verbascum and the corolla yellow and the lobes slightly unequal)SCROPHULARIACEAE
Stamens 5; flowers actinomorphic
                       Back to 445
447Flowers <15 mm long, solitary or in small axillary clustersCONVOLVULACEAE
Flowers >20 mm long, in many-flowered terminal inflorescences
                       Back to 446
448Stamens 4, sometimes with 1 staminode; corolla 2-lipped or flower ± actinomorphicPLANTAGINACEAE
Stamens 5; flowers actinomorphic
                       Back to 445
Woody plants
                       Back to 431
450Flowers zygomorphic451
Flowers actinomorphic
                       Back to 449
451Stamens 5; stylar cup present; fruit a small capsule, <2 cm long, not hornedGOODENIACEAE
Fertile stamens 2 or 4; stylar cup absent; fruit a horned capsule, >2 cm long
                       Back to 450
452Petals shortly united into a basal tube; cymes few-flowered; prostrate plantsPORTULACACEAE
Petals free at the base, fused above; either flowers in many-flowered spikes or racemes, or rarely flowers solitary and then plant prostrate; plants usually erect
                       Back to 450
453Flowers unisexualEBENACEAE
Flowers bisexual or polygamous
                       Back to 449
454Stamens 10, anthers dehiscing by terminal pores; calyx enlarging in fruitERICACEAE
Stamens 5 or 10, anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; calyx not enlarging in fruit
                       Back to 453
455Ovary 1- or 2-locular; stamens 5456
Ovary usually 5-locular; stamens 10; stems and leaves covered with peltate scales
                       Back to 454
456Ovary 1-locular, ovules 2; fruit an indehiscent drupe568
Ovary incompletely 2-locular, ovules several; fruit dehiscing by 2 valves
                       Back to 455
457Style gynobasic or at least style arising between the 4 lobes of the ovary; fruit consisting of 4 nutletsLAMIACEAE
Style terminal on the ovary; fruit variable, rarely of 4 nutlets
                       Back to 430
458Corolla tube split to base on one sidePORTULACACEAE
Corolla tube not split to base
                       Back to 457
459Stamens fewer than the corolla lobes460
Stamens equal in number to the corolla lobes or more numerous
                       Back to 458
460Stamens 2 and the flowers actinomorphicOLEACEAE
Stamens more than 2 or if 2 the flowers zygomorphic
                       Back to 459
461Ovary with 1 or 2 basal ovules per loculus; fruit either of 4 nutlets each with or without a succulent layer, or drupaceous462
Ovules numerous in each loculus; fruit dry
                       Back to 460
462Plants either glabrous or hairy and then hairs simple or T-shapedVERBENACEAE
Plants usually densely hairy; hairs much-branched
                       Back to 461
463Leaves with glandular hairs; fruit prominently hardened464
Leaves without glandular hairs; fruit not hardened
                       Back to 461
464Fruit indehiscent, without horns, <2 cm longPEDALIACEAE
Fruit dehiscent, horned, >2 cm long
                       Back to 463
465Seeds attached to placentas by hooked processesACANTHACEAE
Seeds not attached by hooked processes
                       Back to 463
466Milky or yellowish latex exudes from cut or broken stems or petioles467
Milky or yellowish latex usually absent
                       Back to 459
467Pollen aggregated into 2–4 pollinia; fruit always a pair of dehiscent, green to brownish follicles (sometimes only 1 develops) (formerly Asclepiadaceae)APOCYNACEAE
Pollen granular, not aggregated into pollinia; fruit a black or brightly coloured capsule, berry or drupe, rarely a pair of tardily dehiscent follicles
                       Back to 466
468Stamens free, 8RUTACEAE
Stamens epipetalous, 4–6
                       Back to 466
469Stamens opposite the corolla lobesPRIMULACEAE
Stamens alternating with the corolla lobes
                       Back to 468
470Corolla zygomorphic (sometimes only slightly so); stems often angular471
Corolla actinomorphic; stems rarely angular
                       Back to 469
471Stamens 4, in pairs, filaments of unequal length; plants either glabrous or hairy and then hairs simple or T-shapedVERBENACEAE
Stamens 4–6, all similar; plants usually densely hairy; hairs much-branched
                       Back to 470
472Petiole bases connected by a raised line or flap of tissueLOGANIACEAE
Connection between petiole bases absent
                       Back to 470
473Style terminated by a cup that surrounds the stigma; petals usually with a thickened strip on the backGOODENIACEAE
Stylar cup absent; petals without a thickened strip
                       Back to 317
474Tendrils present on stemsCUCURBITACEAE
Tendrils absent
                       Back to 473
475Either anthers fused around the style, or the anthers sessile and fused to the style476
Anthers free from one another and free from the style
                       Back to 474
476Stamens 3–5, the anthers fused around the style477
Anthers 2, sessile, fused to the style
                       Back to 475
477Flowers in heads and surrounded by an involucre of bracts, bracts sometimes fused and then forming a burr in fruitASTERACEAE
Flowers neither in heads nor surrounded by involucral bracts; burrs not formed
                       Back to 476
478Leaves opposite and with interpetiolar stipules479
Either leaves alternate or if leaves opposite then stipules absent or not interpetiolar
                       Back to 475
479Petals fused into a tube; margins of leaves entireRUBIACEAE
Petals free; margins of leaves toothed
                       Back to 478
480Flowers aggregated in either heads or head-like umbels with an involucre of bracts481
Flowers neither in heads nor in head-like umbels with an involucre of bracts
                       Back to 478
481Leaves not succulent482
Leaves succulent
                       Back to 480
482Leaves opposite or ± whorledDIPSACACEAE
Leaves alternate
                       Back to 481
483Leaves succulent or semisucculent; herbs or shrubs484
Leaves non-succulent; herbs, shrubs or trees
                       Back to 480
484Corolla present, 4–6-lobed485
Corolla not differentiated, perianth present in 1 or 2 whorls, staminodes absent or more often numerous and petaloid
                       Back to 483
485Staminodes 5, not petaloid; flowers in terminal racemesPRIMULACEAE
Staminodes absent; flowers in few-flowered terminal or axillary cymes
                       Back to 484
486Either stamens >5 or if 5 then oil dots prominent in leaves (leaves usually aromatic when crushed)487
Stamens 5 or fewer and oil dots absent from leaves
                       Back to 483
487Leaves dotted with oil glands; sepals and/or petals sometimes formed into a calyptra488
Leaves without obvious oil glands; calyptra usually not formed (except in some Myrtaceae)
                       Back to 486
488Stamens 5–numerous, all similar, staminodes absentMYRTACEAE
Stamens numerous, inner stamens sterile, petaloid, outer stamens fertile
                       Back to 487
489Flowers unisexual; vegetative buds scaly, sharply pointed; stipules presentNOTHOFAGACEAE
Flowers bisexual; vegetative buds generally not scaly; stipules absent
                       Back to 487
490Styles free, 2 or more491
Style simple
                       Back to 489
491Styles usually 5; leaves alternate; fruit usually fleshy (formerly Malaceae)ROSACEAE
Styles 2; leaves opposite or apparently whorled; fruit dry (formerly Baueraceae)
                       Back to 490
492Stamens >10; shrubs or trees, various habitats493
Stamens 10 or fewer; herbs or trees, not in rainforest
                       Back to 490
493Fruit ± succulent, drupaceous or a berry; shrubs or trees in rainforest494
Fruit dry, capsular; trees, rarely in rainforest
                       Back to 492
494Leaves alternate, toothedSYMPLOCACEAE
Leaves opposite, entire
                       Back to 493
495Stamens all similar, filaments not jointed496
Stamens not all similar, 5 larger, filaments articulated
                       Back to 492
496Herbs; calyx and corolla present; fruit a capsuleONAGRACEAE
Shrubs; perianth in 1 whorl; fruit a berry
                       Back to 495
497Flowers in umbels (sometimes 2-flowered in Xanthosia); carpels usually 2498
Flowers not in umbels; carpels variable
                       Back to 486
498Epigynous disc usually swelling at the base of the styles on the fruit; mostly herbs, occasionally small shrubs; glabrous, or if pubescent not stellate-pubescentAPIACEAE
Epigynous disc not swelling; shrubs or trees, stellate-pubescent
                       Back to 497
499Flowers minute (1–2 mm long), in leaf axilsHALORAGACEAE
Flowers larger and in expanded inflorescences or solitary and terminal
                       Back to 497
500Herbs or subshrubs; corolla blue to purple or red501
Shrubs or trees; corolla neither blue to purple nor red
                       Back to 499
501Flowers ± solitary, blue, calyx not pappus-like; widespread, native speciesCAMPANULACEAE
Flowers in dense terminal clusters, calyx pappus-like, flowers red or white; cultivated plants, rarely naturalized
                       Back to 500
502Leaves palmately lobed; stout, curved spines present at most nodesGROSSULARIACEAE
Leaves not palmately lobed; spines absent
                       Back to 500
503Stamens alternating with the sepals (or perianth segments if only 1 whorl present)504
Stamens opposite the sepals
                       Back to 502
504Stipules present (sometimes minute); leaves alternate, hairy, hairs often stellate; fruit a capsuleRHAMNACEAE
Stipules absent; leaves opposite or subopposite, glabrous or almost so; fruit a drupe
                       Back to 503
505Domatia numerous; ovary 1-locularCORNACEAE
Domatia absent; ovary mostly 2–5-locular, rarely 1-locular
                       Back to 503
506Shrubs (sometimes single-stemmed) with stellate hairs; ovary usually 2-locularARALIACEAE
Shrubs or trees, glabrous or pubescent with simple or T-shaped hairs; ovary 1–5-locular
                       Back to 505
507Native rainforest species; leaves alternate or opposite with toothed margins; flowers <5 mm long508
Garden escapes, not in rainforest; leaves opposite with margins entire or toothed; flowers >8 mm long
                       Back to 506
508Leaves opposite or alternate, glabrous or silvery-hairy on lower surface; fruit blackish, 2–5-locular and many-seeded or if 1-locular and 1-seeded then leaves opposite566
Leaves alternate, sparsely hairy on lower surface; fruit red, 1-locular and 1-seeded
                       Back to 507
509Fruit 2–5-locular, many-seeded; leaves either entire or lobed, or if toothed then flowers enclosed by coloured bracts >10 mm longCAPRIFOLIACEAE
Fruit 1-locular, 1-seeded; leaves toothed but flowers not enclosed by bracts
                       Back to 507
510Leaves usually with an open sheath that surrounds the stem and a ligule usually present at the top of the sheath although often much reduced; flowers enclosed by a palea and lemma and variously arranged into spikeletsPOACEAE
Leaves lacking a sheath and ligule; flowers not enclosed by a palea and lemma and arranged into spikelets
                       Back to 254
511Leaves on adult plants reduced to open sheaths on the aerial stems (sheath sometimes bears a small ± linear lamina)RESTIONACEAE
Leaves on adult plants not reduced to open sheaths on the aerial stems
                       Back to 510
512Plants arborescent513
Plants herbaceous
                       Back to 511
513Leaves compoundARECACEAE
Leaves simple
                       Back to 512
514Stems branched several times; plants with stilt rootsPANDANACEAE
Stems unbranched, or if branched then stilt roots absent
                       Back to 513
515Leaf bases persistent on the stemXANTHORRHOEACEAE
Leaf bases not persistent on the stem
                       Back to 514
516Perianth segments <2 cm long; ovary superior; leaves not succulent and spinescentASTELIACEAE
Perianth segments >2 cm long; ovary inferior or rarely superior; leaves often succulent and/or spinescent
                       Back to 515
517Inflorescence paniculate, spreading; perianth white to yellowish or rarely red; leaves with margins toothed, often spinose and apex spinose518
Inflorescence capitate or racemose; perianth red or bright pink; leaves entire, apex not spinose but with a drip tip
                       Back to 516
518Scape usually >1.5 m high; flowers white to yellowishAGAVACEAE
Scape <1 m high; flowers red
                       Back to 517
519Leaves with reticulate venation; main veins often longitudinal520
Leaves with parallel venation
                       Back to 512
520Leaves with petiole as long as or longer than the lamina521
Leaves with petiole shorter than the lamina
                       Back to 519
521Flowers in dense cylindrical spikes surrounded by a spatheARACEAE
Flowers in loose panicles or racemes
                       Back to 520
522Leaves 4–10 cm wide523
Leaves <4 cm wide
                       Back to 519
523Inflorescence borne among, or slightly exceeding, the leaves; leaves cauline, differentiated into a circular open sheath that surrounds the stem and the lamina, midrib present; stamen 1524
Inflorescence borne on a scape much longer than the leaves, often 1–3 m high; leaves radical, without a circular sheath, dilated at the base; stamens 6
                       Back to 522
524Leaves 2-ranked and with a ligule at junction of sheath and lamina, lateral veins almost parallel to the midrib; anthers with 2 fertile loculiZINGIBERACEAE
Leaves not 2-ranked, ligule absent, lateral veins pinnate; anthers with 1 fertile loculus
                       Back to 523
525Inflorescence paniculate, spreading; leaves with margins and apex spinoseAGAVACEAE
Inflorescence capitate or racemose; leaves entire, not spinose
                       Back to 523
526Flowers actinomorphic, perianth red or bright pinkDORYANTHACEAE
Flowers zygomorphic, perianth white to yellowish, sometimes with darker markings
                       Back to 525
527Leaves well developed, green and scattered along the aerial stem and branches; flowers usually axillary or in small terminal inflorescences; underground stems generally not well developed528
Leaves all or mostly basal or reduced and bract-like along the aerial stems; flowers commonly borne on a ± leafless scape; underground stems well developed, usually modified into bulbs, corms, tubers or rhizomes
                       Back to 522
528Mat-forming perennials of damp alpine flatsANTHERICACEAE
Plants not forming mats in alpine areas
                       Back to 527
529Stamen 1, fused to the style and stigma to form the column; staminodes sometimes present; one petal (labellum) different from, and more conspicuous than the othersORCHIDACEAE
Stamens 3–6; stamens not fused to the style and stigma to form the column; and flowers not modified with one petal different from others
                       Back to 528
530Leaves with a closed basal sheath that encircles the stem; lamina herbaceous, semi-succulent or scleromorphic; ovary superior531
Closed sheath absent; leaves scleromorphic or herbaceous; ovary superior or inferior
                       Back to 529
531Fruit usually a capsule, sometimes a nut but then not suspended by filaments; petals coloured; leaves herbaceous or semisucculent, ligule absentCOMMELINACEAE
Fruit a nut, may be suspended by persistent anther filaments; petals not differentiated; leaves scleromorphic, scabrous and often ligulate
                       Back to 530
532Leaves with petiole twisted 180°, >10 mm long; ovary inferiorALSTROEMERIACEAE
Leaves with petiole <10 mm long or lamina sessile, petiole not conspicuously twisted; ovary superior
                       Back to 530
533Flowers unisexual; leaves scleromorphicLOMANDRACEAE
Flowers bisexual (rarely unisexual and then the leaves herbaceous); leaves usually herbaceous, rarely scleromorphic
                       Back to 532
534Filaments densely bearded or with a conspicuous swelling below the anthers; perianth commonly blue, rarely cream; plants >30 cm highPHORMIACEAE
Filaments neither bearded nor with a conspicuous swelling below the anthers; perianth usually cream or lilac; plants usually <30 cm high
                       Back to 533
535Fruit a capsule; flowers in few-flowered cymes or umbels or if solitary then flowers sessile or terminal, rarely axillary and stalked536
Fruit a berry; flowers solitary, axillary, stalked
                       Back to 534
536Plants with a corm; leaves either with apex tendril-like or with a tubular sheath encircling the stem and broadening of the basal part of the laminaCOLCHICACEAE
Plants rhizomatous; leaves not with apex tendril-like or with a tubular sheath
                       Back to 535
537Either flowers unisexual and in dense spikes (male above, female below), or flowers covered by glume-like bracts538
Flowers not unisexual and in dense spikes (male above, female below), or flowers not covered by glume-like bracts
                       Back to 527
538Flowers unisexual and in dense elongated or globose heads; individual flower pedicels not visible; inflorescence axis visible between clusters but not between individual flowers; individual flowers <5 mm diam539
Flowers not unisexual and in dense elongated or globose heads; individual flower pedicels visible; inflorescence axis visible between individual flowers; individual flowers >5 mm diam
                       Back to 537
539Inflorescence dense spike-like; male flowers above, female flowers below, ± separated by a portion of stemTYPHACEAE
Inflorescence of dense globose clusters arranged along the axis; upper clusters male, lower clusters female
                       Back to 538
540Petals 3, yellow, conspicuous when expanded but short-lived; sepals 3; flowers subtended by wide imbricate bracts, massed into a globose head; leaf bases dilated and mostly dark red-brown or blackishXYRIDACEAE
Perianth segments all similar; inflorescence and leaf bases not as above
                       Back to 538
541Perianth segments >4 mm long; fruit a berry; at least bases of leaves silvery-hairyASTELIACEAE
Perianth segments <3 mm long, membranous or chaffy or perianth lacking; fruit a capsule or a nut; leaf bases green
                       Back to 540
542Perianth members 4 or 6; flowers arranged in dense, convex, button-like heads 6–8 mm diam. on a scape; fruit a capsuleERIOCAULACEAE
Perianth lacking or represented by hairs or scales; inflorescence not as above; fruit a capsule or nut
                       Back to 541
543Fruit a dehiscent capsule; tufted annuals with filiform leaves dilated at the baseCENTROLEPIDACEAE
Fruit an indehiscent nut; habit rarely as above, if similar, then the leaves with closed sheaths encircling the stem
                       Back to 542
544Ovary superior545
Ovary inferior or half-inferior
                       Back to 537
545Perianth of 4 segments; inflorescence spicate546
Perianth of 6 segments in 2 whorls, fused or free; inflorescence variable
                       Back to 544
546Stamen 1; flowers zygomorphic, yellow or white, >1 cm long; inflorescence > 20 cm long, flowers spread along axisPHILYDRACEAE
Stamens 4; flowers actinomorphic, greenish, <3 mm long; inflorescence c. 15 cm long, flowers crowded at end of peduncle c. 1–2 m long
                       Back to 545
547Bulbs present548
Bulbs absent, rootstock often a rhizome, tuber or corm
                       Back to 545
548Either plants smelling like onions, or inflorescence umbellateALLIACEAE
Plants not smelling like onions, inflorescence racemose
                       Back to 547
549Scape with one or more leaves; perianth >9 cm long; bulb >5 cm diamLILIACEAE
Scape leafless or only leafy at the base; perianth <6 cm long; bulbs <3 cm diam
                       Back to 548
550All flowers unisexual, arranged in branched cymes, spikes or semi-globose headsXANTHORRHOEACEAE
Flowers bisexual, rarely some unisexual flowers present
                       Back to 547
551Carpel solitaryLILAEACEAE
Carpels 3, fused
                       Back to 550
552Perianth greenish to dark red-brown, usually 1–2 mm long; flowers generally in compound cymes or heads; leaves cylindrical, flat or reduced to sheathsJUNCACEAE
Perianth white or brightly coloured, >2 mm long; inflorescences and leaves not as above
                       Back to 551
553Style divided into 3 or 6 distinct segments554
Style simple, sometimes the stigma shallowly lobed
                       Back to 552
554Style divided into 3 segments; inflorescence umbellate on a scape above the basal leaves; leaves <30 cm long; fruit a 3-lobed capsuleCOLCHICACEAE
Style divided into 6 segments; inflorescence racemose, ± among the leaves; leaves >40 cm long; fruit a 6-lobed berry
                       Back to 553
555Perianth segments fused to form a tube longer than the lobes; flowers usually >2.5 cm longBLANDFORDIACEAE
Perianth segments ± free; flowers generally <2.5 cm long
                       Back to 553
556Flowers terminal, solitary and sessile; plants forming mats in damp alpine flatsANTHERICACEAE
Flowers axillary or if terminal then not solitary and sessile; plants not alpine
                       Back to 555
557Flowers either pedicellate in terminal umbels, or in dense clusters on scapes, or in ± sessile heads (perianth often spirally twisted after flowering)ANTHERICACEAE
Inflorescence racemose, commonly unbranched, flowers, or at least some of them separated, at nodes along the inflorescence axes
                       Back to 556
558Filaments dorsifixed, anthers versatile; either leaves fleshy and with spinose teeth, or leaves ± terete, sometimes channelled aboveASPHODELACEAE
Filaments attached at or near the base of the anthers, anthers not versatile; leaves flat
                       Back to 557
559Anthers dehiscing by apical poresPHORMIACEAE
Anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits
                       Back to 558
560Stamens 6561
Stamens 3 or fewer
                       Back to 544
561Inflorescence umbellate, rarely flowers solitary on leafless scape; bulbs presentAMARYLLIDACEAE
Inflorescence shortly racemose, spicate or the flowers solitary; corms or rhizomes present
                       Back to 560
562Stamens 3, free from the style; perianth variable, but not as below563
Stamen 1, fused to the style and stigma to form the column; staminodes sometimes present; one petal (labellum) usually different from, and more conspicuous than the others
                       Back to 560
563Ovary half-inferior; perianth not petaloid, purple-black; underground parts of the plant usually orange or reddishHAEMODORACEAE
Ovary inferior; perianth petaloid, generally not purple-black; underground parts of the plant not conspicuously orange or reddish
                       Back to 562
564Ovary and fruit winged; flowers on one side of a once-forked cyme; flowers actinomorphic, perianth blue; leaves often <5 cm longBURMANNIACEAE
Ovary and fruit not winged; inflorescence spicate or racemose, rarely cymose or flowers solitary; flowers zygomorphic or actinomorphic, perianth variously coloured, occasionally blue; leaves >5 cm long
                       Back to 563
565Ovary inferiorARALIACEAE
Ovary superior
                       Back to 262
566Leaves silvery-hairy on lower surfaceARGOPHYLLACEAE
Leaves opposite or alternate, glabrous on lower surface
                       Back to 508
567Ovary 1–2-locularESCALLONIACEAE
Ovary 4–5-locular
                       Back to 417
568Domatia pit-like, mostly in forks of secondary veins; inflorescences corymbose panicles; anthers versatile; seed not groovedPENNANTIACEAE
Domatia pocket-like, usually confined to axils along primary veins; inflorescences thyrsoid; anthers not versatile; seed grooved
                       Back to 456

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