Synonyms: Carpinaceae APNI*
Description: Deciduous trees or shrubs, monoecious.
Leaves alternate, simple, pinnately veined, generally with serrate or dentate margins, petiolate; stipules caducous.
Inflorescence a terminal or axillary, paniculate or solitary unisexual cymose catkin or spike, bracteate. Male inflorescence pendulous. Male flowers solitary or in 3-flowered dichasia; sepals 1–6, scale-like or obsolete; corolla absent; stamens usually equal in number to, and opposite, sepals; pistillode present or absent. Female inflorescence erect. Female flowers in 2- or 3-flowered dichasia; perianth usually absent; staminodes absent; ovary inferior; carpels 2 or 3, each with 1 or 2 axile, pendulous ovules; styles usually separate.
Fruit a nut or a 2-winged samara enclosed by thickened bracts and bracteoles, usually in a cone-like infructescence. Seed usually solitary, with or without endosperm.
Distribution and occurrence: World: 6 genera, c. 170 species, predominantly temperate and cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with three genera extending to the neotropics (Andes). Australia: (naturalised) 2 genera, c. 4 species, N.S.W., A.C.T, Vic., Tas.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Betulaceae, Order: Fagales)
Text by H.J Hewson, adapted by Kerry Gibbons, 12 Apr. 2023
Taxon concept: APG IV, Flora of Australia [accessed 6 Apr. 2023]. Distribution and occurrence: Kew Plants of the World Online, Australian Plant Census [both accessed 6 Apr. 2023].