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Family Campanulaceae

Synonyms: Lobeliaceae APNI*

Description: Annual or perennial herbs, usually with a milky latex.

Leaves alternate, opposite or sometimes whorled, sometimes basal; simple; stipules absent.

Inflorescence cymose, or raceme-like, or flowers solitary in axils of leaf-like bracts or in clusters. Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, bisexual or unisexual and then plants dioecious, usually 5-merous, frequently protandrous. Hypanthium not extended above the inferior ovary. Sepals usually 5, persistent in fruit. Corolla campanulate or rotate, usually 5-lobed, or 1- or 2-lipped, often split on upper surface. Stamens usually 5, free or joined to the corolla basally; anthers and filaments joined in ta tube around the flower; anthers 2-locular, dehiscing and wilting before the flower opens, dehiscence introrse by longitudinal slits; filaments usually expanded and ciliate, persistent in open flowers. Ovary usually inferior, usually 2–5-locular with axile placentation, [sometimes 1-locular with parietal placentation], ovules numerous; style simple, upper part bearing shed pollen, entire or with stigmatic lobes equal in number to the loculi, opening when pollen mostly gone.

Fruit a capsule, dehiscent or somewhat fleshy and indehiscent; seeds numerous.

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 79 genera, 1900 species, mostly in temperate regions. Australia: 6 genera, 89 species, all States.

External links:
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Campanulaceae, Order: Asterales)

Many species are grown as ornamentals, notably the bellflowers Campanula. The family Lobeliaeace is now included under Campanulaceae.

Text by P. J. Smith and B. Wiecek; updated L. Murray (Sep 2018).
Taxon concept: Flora of NSW Vol 3

 Key to the genera 
1Flowers zygomorphic; stamens 5, the anthers and filaments fused to form a tube around the style4
Flowers actinomorphic; stamens usually 5 and free2
2Plant with basal leaves obviously petiolate and upper leaves becoming sessileCampanula
Plant with all leaves sessile or more or less sessile
                       Back to 1
3Flowers more or less sessile in leaf axils; leaves circular with a cordate baseTriodanis
Flowers terminal; pedicellate; leaves not as above
                       Back to 2
4Corolla tube slit to near base5
Corolla tube not slit to near base
                       Back to 1
5Corolla purpleMonopsis
Corolla blue, white or rarely pink
                       Back to 4

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