PlantNET Home DONATE TODAY | PlantNET Home | Search NSW Flora | Contact Us  
Plant Name Search
Index Search
Spatial Search
Identification Keys
Telopea Journal
Other Data Sources

Family Cannabaceae

Description: Erect or twining shrubs or annual or perennial herbs (frequently woody at base), or evergreen or deciduous trees, dioecious or monoecious, occasionally also with some bisexual flowers.

Leaves opposite or alternate, simple or palmately- compound, often palmately lobed; margins generally toothed, occasionally entire; venation 3–5 veined from (near) base or pinnate; stipules present, often small and falling early.

Inflorescences axillary, racemose (panicle, raceme, thyrse or spike-like), or cymose; usually unisexual, occasionally with male and female flowers or male, female and bisexual flowers mixed. Male inflorescences often dense, many flowered, female flowers often solitary or few-flowered. Flowers with perianth 1-whorled. Male flowers pedicellate; perianth with 4–6 lobes, usually imbricate, occasionally induplicate-valvate (Trema); stamens usually as many as perianth lobes; pistillode present or absent. Female flowers sessile or pedicellate; perianth lobes 4–6 or perianth undivided, staminodes present or absent; ovary 1-locular; stigmas usually 2.

Fruit an achene, nut or drupe.

Distribution and occurrence: World: 11 genera, 170 species, worldwide. Australia: 5 genera, ca. 15 species, all States.

External links:
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Cannabaceae, Order: Rosales)

Edited by H. Sauquet (Jan 2019: circumscription, occurrence, and key, not description); note that several genera of Cannabaceae (incl. Aphananthe, Celtis, and Trema) were previously included as members of Ulmaceae here (PlantNET) and in the Flora of Australia (1989). Description now reflects this broader family circumscription, Kerry Gibbons, 9 May 2023.

Text by G. J. Harden, Kerry Gibbons, description updated 9 May 2023 from Harden, Fl NSW, and R.D. Pearce, H.J. Hewson and P.G. Kodela, Flora of Australia Online [accessed 8 May 2023].
Taxon concept: Angiosperm Phylogeny Group / Australian Plant Census (2018)

 Key to the genera 
1Climbers or erect herbs, leaves palmately compound or deeply lobed (rarely unlobed), fruit an achene2
Trees or shrubs, leaves simple, not deeply lobed, fruit a drupe3
2Climbers; leaves simple, palmately lobed or rarely unlobedHumulus
Erect herbs; leaves palmately compound
                       Back to 1
3Leaves toothed, the veins ending in spinose teeth; leaves mostly strictly pinnately veined, rarely 3-veined from baseAphananthe
Leaves either entire or toothed but teeth not spinose; leaves 3-veined from base, secondary veins usually extending at least midway up the lamina
                       Back to 1
4Lower surface of leaves not scabrous, margins entire or toothedCeltis
Both surfaces of leaves scabrous, margins toothed
                       Back to 3

  Privacy | Copyright | Disclaimer | About PlantNET | Cite PlantNET