Description: Low-growing annual or perennial herbs, rhizomatous.
Leaves opposite, often becoming spiral forming a basal rosette; margins generally toothed.
Inflorescence a scape or (not in Australia) a terminal raceme; pedicels alternate; bracts and bracteoles small or absent, or (not in Australia) broad. Calyx campanulate or 2-lipped; sepals 5. Corolla 2-lipped; tube short or scarcely exceeding the calyx; posterior lip erect, ovate, emarginate: anterior lip longer, broad, spreading, 3-lobed, with 2 swellings near the base of the throat. Stamens 4, in two pairs of unequal lengths (didynamous). Ovary superior; carpels 2 (fused); locule 1; stigma bilobed, sensitive; ovules many.
Capsule globose or compressed; calyx persistent; seed very small, ovoid.
Distribution and occurrence: World: 4 genera, c. 44 species, mainly E & South-East Asia, also New Guinea, New Zealand & Australia; Australia 1 species (endemic).
Text by Kerry Gibbons, 26 May 2023.
Taxon concept: APG IV; Barker, W.R. Mazus PlantNET Flora Online [accessed May 2023]; Christenhusz, Fay & Chase (2017) Plants of the World. Kew Publishing: Surrey; Reveal, J.A. (2011) Kew Bulletin 66: 5–48