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Family Polygonaceae

Description: Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or climbers; stems often with swollen nodes, the nodes surrounded by a membranous or scarious sheath (ocrea), usually shortly tubular, often disintegrating [or reduced or rarely absent].

Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, simple and usually entire, petiolate or sessile, sometimes articulate; sunken (pit) nectaries sometimes present at base of petiole on lower surface.

Inflorescence a raceme or spike-like panicle; flowers clustered or solitary, each cluster subtended by an ocreola and each flower by a similar small persistent sheath. Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual (plants dioecious or monoecious); pedicels mostly articulate, with portion ('fruiting pedicel') falling with fruit. Perianth segments mostly 4–6 in 2 whorls, imbricate, united at least at base, sepaloid and greenish or petaloid and white to deep pink, persistent, often enlarged in fruit and membranous, hard or succulent. Stamens mostly 2–9; anthers versatile or basifixed, 2-locular, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior, 1-locular with a solitary basal ovule; styles 1–4, free or fused at base; stigmas variable.

Fruit an achene, trigonous or lenticular, mostly enclosed by persistent perianth and falling as a unit with portion of pedicel.


Habitat
Photo Karen L Wilson

Habit
Photo J. Plaza

Flower
Photo J. R. Hosking

Fruit
Photo L. von Richter

Distribution and occurrence: World: 55 gen., 1115 spp., cosmop., especially in N temp. regions. Aust.: 10 gen. (4 gen. native), 57 spp., all States.

External links:
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Polygonaceae, Order: Caryophyllales)
Wikipedia

Various species are cultivated as ornamentals or food crops, including Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. (Coral Vine), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Buckwheat), Muehlenbeckia platyclada (Homalocladium platycladum), Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Sojak (Vietnamese Mint), Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach (Princes Feathers), Rheum x rhabarbarum L. (Rhubarb). Various species are weedy, especially introduced species of Rumex (Docks and Sorrel).

Text by K. L. Wilson; key updated by H. Sauquet (Oct 2020)
Taxon concept:

 Key to the genera 
1Perianth segments 4 or 5; anthers versatile2
Perianth segments 6 (occasionally 5); anthers basifixedRumex
2Ocreas entire, tubular, often only shortly so and soon disintegrating, pale brown, upper margin often ciliate or with a green limb; stamen filaments subulate or filiform3
Ocreas lacerate, often nearly to base, glabrous, silvery or white; stamen filaments subulate above, widely dilated in lower half
                       Back to 1
Polygonum
3Shrubs with thorn-like branch tips; extrafloral nectaries absentDuma
Vines or shrubs without thorn-like branch tips; extrafloral nectaries present or absent
                       Back to 2
4
4Flowers mostly unisexual; stigmas elongate or peltate, fimbriate; extrafloral nectary present at base of petiole on abaxial surface5
Flowers bisexual; stigmas capitate, usually smooth; petiolar nectaries absent or present
                       Back to 3
6
5Outer 3 perianth segments winged in fruit; stigmas shortly elongate; rhizomatous perennials with stout erect annual stemsReynoutria
Perianth segments not winged but often enlarged in fruit, and becoming fleshy or membranous; stigmas peltate; slender perennial shrubs or woody herbs or climbers, not rhizomatous
                       Back to 4
Muehlenbeckia
6Nut much exceeding perianth segmentsFagopyrum
Nut enclosed by perianth segments
                       Back to 4
7
7Outer 3 perianth segments winged or keeled in fruit; twining or decumbent, slender but woody herbs; nectary present at base of petioleFallopia
Perianth segments not winged or keeled; erect to procumbent non-woody herbs, slender to stout; nectaries absent
                       Back to 6
Persicaria

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