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Family Scrophulariaceae

Synonyms: Myoporaceae APNI*
Buddlejaceae APNI*
Selaginaceae APNI*

Description: Herbs, rarely shrubs or climbers, sometimes semiparasitic, glabrous or hairy, often with minute sessile glands.

Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled or clustered, simple, stipules absent.

Inflorescence a raceme or spike with flowers 1–several in bract axils, or flowers solitary; bracts leaf-like or reduced. Flowers zygomorphic to ± actinomorphic, bisexual, 3–5-merous. Calyx tubular and 3–5-lobed or sepals 4 or 5 and ± free; persistent in fruit. Corolla tubular, 2-lipped or ± equally 3–5-lobed, the mouth often restricted by swellings (the palate); tube sometimes extended into a spur at base; usually not persistent in fruit. Stamens epipetalous, usually 4 in pairs of unequal length (didynamous), or 2, with or without a pair of staminodes or rarely stamens 5; anthers 2- or 1-locular, opening by longitudinal slits or almost pores. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate and 2-locular with the septum in the lateral plane; placentation axile or free-central (Limosella); ovules many; style 1, terminal, with a simple or 2-lobed stigma.

Fruit partly or completely enclosed in persistent calyx, either a septicidal and/or loculicidal capsule, splitting usually from the apex, sometimes from the base, or consisting of 2 1-seeded nutlets (cocci).

Distribution and occurrence: World: 54 genera, c. 1800 species, cosmopolitan. Australia: 17 genera, all States.

External links:
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Order: Lamiales)

Text by W. R. Barker, except for genera with other contributors listed
Taxon concept: APG IV

Taxa not yet included in identification key
Hebenstretia,    Selago

 Key to the genera 
1Shrubs or trees2
Herbs or sub-shrubs4
2Corolla zygomorphic (rarely actinomorphic and then stamens 5); stamens usually 4, enclosed or exsertedEremophila
Corolla actinomorphic or nearly so; stamens 4, enclosed or exserted
                       Back to 1
3Undersurface of leaves with stellate hairs and or glandular/scalyBuddleja
Leaves nearly always glabrous, but if hairy then hairs simple
                       Back to 2
4Leaves basal, either either alternate and basal or basal due to the suppression of the internodes5
No basal leaves present; leaves opposite
                       Back to 1
5Flowers in terminal racemes or spikes or panicles; leaves alternate along flowering stemVerbascum
Flowerssolitary and found in the axils at the base of the plant
                       Back to 4
6Corolla tube swollen or pouched at base; capsule asymmetric in side viewNemesia
Corolla tube symmetrical at base; capule symmetrical in side view
                       Back to 4

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