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Family TYPHACEAE

Synonyms: Sparganiaceae APNI*

Description: Erect emergent, rhizomatous, aquatic perennial herbs; rhizomes extensive, sometimes submerged and floating.

Leaves alternate, distichous, basal and cauline, with sheath at base; blade more or less erect, linear, parallel veined, often spongy within.

Inflorescence terminal, densely compact, complex, globular heads or cylindric spikes. Flowers unisexual, perianth absent or of 1–6 tepals or sometimes replaced by a variable number of long scales or long hairs. Male flowers with (1–)3(8) stamens. Female flowers with superior ovary, fertile female flower with a 1-ovuled ovary with unbranched style, or carpels 2–3 with style 2–3 branched.

Individual fruit a 1-seeded follicle, small, dry, dehiscing by a longitudinal slit or indehiscent.


Distribution and occurrence: World: 2 genera, c. 30 species, cosmopolitan. Australia: 2 genera, 5 species (3 species native, 2 species naturalized), all States.

External links:
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Typhaceae, Order: Poales)
Wikipedia

Text by S. W. L. Jacobs (edited by R. W. Jobson 2021)
Taxon concept:

Two genera in NSW: Sparganium, Typha

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