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Family rutaceae

Synonyms: Ptaeroxylaceae APNI*
Cneoraceae APNI*

Description: Trees, shrubs or more rarely herbs; prickles or axillary spines present in some genera.

Leaves alternate or opposite, simple or compound, lamina with oil dots that are usually aromatic when crushed; stipules usually absent but gland-like stipules present in some species of Eriostemon and Philotheca.

Inflorescences terminal or axillary, sometimes ramiflorous, umbellate or cymose clusters of 1–many flowers. Flowers actinomorphic and mostly bisexual, commonly 4- or 5-merous. Sepals usually 4 or 5, ± fused at the base or united in a cup. Petals mostly 4 or 5, imbricate or valvate, usually free but fused in most species of Correa. Stamens either same number as the petals or twice as many or rarely more numerous; filaments free or cohering in bundles; anthers 2-locular and often apiculate; dehiscence introrse or lateral by longitudinal slits. Nectariferous disk mostly present. Gynoecium superior, carpels usually 4 or 5, 1-locular carpels; carpels either fused completely or free and ± coherent towards their bases and united above by their simple styles; styles free or fused; ovules 2–several per loculus.

Fruit various, often of 1–5 cocci (sometimes called follicles) which usually dehisce along their inner and apical edge, occasionally a berry, drupe, capsule or 1–5 samaras; seeds sometimes winged.

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 150 genera, 1800 species, widespread in tropical & temperate regions, especially southern Africa & Australia. Australia: c. 40 genera, 320 species, all States.

External links:
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Family: Rutaceae, Order: Sapindales)

This family is important for a large number of ornamental and food plants. Many varieties of Citrus are extensively cultivated including oranges, lemons, grapefruit, mandarins, tangarines and limes. Many natives are cultivated as ornamentals, particularly species of Boronia, Crowea, Eriostemon, Phebalium and Correa. Timber is obtained from a number of the rainforest species, such as Halfordia and Flindersia. The fruit of Citrus australis and C. australasica are used for making jam.

 Key to the genera 
1Leaves all 1-foliolate or simple.2
At least some leaves pinnate, 2- or 3-foliolate, or bipinnate.19
2Branches of young plants bearing solitary or paired spines in the leaf axils; fruit a berry containing juice sacs.Citrus
Branches never bearing axillary spines; fruit dehiscent or drupaceous.
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3Flowers 4-merous, petals and sepals 4.4
Flowers usually 5-merous and petals and sepals 5, rarely flowers 6-merous.
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4Leaves alternate (P. virgata).Philotheca
Leaves opposite.
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5Petals united into a tubular or campanulate corolla, sometimes separating as the flower expands.Correa
Petals free.
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6Fruit a drupe; ovary with carpels fused into a unit; stamens divergent.7
Fruit composed of 1–4 basally fused, dehiscent cocci; ovary with carpels ± free; stamens pyramidally arranged and incurved over the ovary.
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7Flowers unisexual; petals persistent in fruit; stigma (in functionally female flowers) broadly 4-lobed.Sarcomelicope
Flowers bisexual; petals not persistent in fruit, rarely semi-persistent; stigma scarcely differentiated from the style.
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8Styles terminal or subterminal; leaves usually <8 cm long and <1 cm wide; petals <2 cm long, pink, mauve, white, or bluish; shrubs in open communities.Boronia
Styles inserted above the middle of each carpel, but not terminal; leaves 8–15 cm long and >1.5 cm wide; petals c. 1.5–2 cm long, creamish; rainforest tree.
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9Leaves opposite or nearly so.10
Leaves alternate.
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10Fruit a 5-valved, 5-locular capsule; seeds winged; buds naked; fertile stamens 5 (opposite the sepals) with alternate stamens reduced to staminodes.Flindersia
Fruit composed of 1–5 dehiscent cocci; seeds not winged; buds with scales completely enclosing the leaf and floral primordia; fertile stamens 10.
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11Stamens 5; seeds blue-black, shining, held in dehiscent cocci by the persistent funiculus.Geijera
Stamens 10; seeds either held in a drupaceous fruit or released from dehiscent cocci.
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12Ovary with carpels fused into a unit; carpels united at maturity; fruit a drupe; rainforest trees.Halfordia
Ovary with carpels ± free; carpels ± separate at maturity; fruit consisting of 1–5 basally fused, dehiscent cocci; shrubs or occasionally small trees, rarely in rainforest.
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13Calyx minute, hidden among hairs and inconspicuous; petals valvate in bud, stellate-tomentose outside.Asterolasia
Calyx conspicuous, or if small then petals imbricate in bud.
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14Petals c. 5-veined from base and densely stellate-scaly outside; leaves 3-veined from base; peduncle with several prominent, rounded imbricate bracts.Eriostemon
Petals 1-veined at base, glabrous, simple or stellate hairy or scaly outside; leaves 1-veined from base; peduncle without prominent bracts, or if present basal.
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15Plants stellate-scaly, especially on young growth.16
Plants glabrous or with simple or stellate hairs.
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16Anthers basifixed, apex with a prominent spherical gland; bracteoles basal to pedicel and insignificant.Phebalium
Anthers versatile, without an apical gland; bracteoles medial or supra-medial on pedicel.
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17Anthers with a sterile white apiculum (sometimes minute), stamens usually pyramidally arranged and incurved over the ovary.18
Anthers without a sterile apiculum, although occasionally with a terminal gland, stamens divergent.
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18Anther and apiculum glabrous.Philotheca
Anther and apiculum pilose.
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19Leaves pinnate with the leaflets alternately arranged on the rachis; fruit an indehiscent berry.20
Leaves 2- or 3-foliolate to pinnate, or bipinnate with lateral leaflets in opposite pairs on the rachis; fruit either dehiscent or indehiscent (drupe, samara or individual carpels).
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20Petals <5 mm long, valvate in bud; ovary loculi not twisted; cotyledons thin, folded.Micromelum
Petals >8 mm long, imbricate in bud; ovary loculi twisted; cotyledons thick, not folded.
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21Rachis of leaves and stems prickly.Zanthoxylum
Rachis of leaves and stems not prickly.
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22Flowers 4-merous with 4 petals and 4 sepals.23
Flowers usually 5-merous, with 5 petals and 5 sepals.
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23Fruit an indehiscent drupe, with or without septicidal fissures; ovary with carpels fused into a unit.Acronychia
Fruit of 2–4 ± free follicles or cocci, dehiscent or rarely indehiscent; ovary with carpels ± free.
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24Stamens 4.25
Stamens 8.
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25Seeds black and shining, held in dehiscent cocci by the persistent funiculus; rainforest trees with leaflets 2.5–20 cm long.Melicope
Seeds dull or shiny, ejected from dehiscent cocci; shrubs or small tree chiefly in sclerophyll forest and heath, leaflets 0.2–10 cm long.
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26Ovules 6–8 per carpel; cocci transversely ridged, 6–10 mm long.Bouchardatia
Ovules 2 per carpel; cocci not transversely ridged, usually <6 mm long.
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27Individual carpels indehiscent in fruit; leaflets usually 8–22 cm long (A. octandra).Acronychia
Individual carpels dehiscent in fruit; leaflets usually 0.2–10 cm long.
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28Fruit subfleshy, orange to red; leaves usually 3-foliolate and leaflets 2.5–10 cm long; tree of dry rainforest, restricted to the headwaters of the Clarence and Richmond Rivers (NC).Dinosperma
Fruit not fleshy, brown to blackish; leaves 3–11-foliolate or rarely bipinnate, leaflets 0.2–6 cm long; shrubs of heath, woodland and sclerophyll forests; however, if either leaflets >2.5 cm long or plants growing in rainforest, then not in the NC north of Grafton.
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29Fruit a 5-valved, 5-locular capsule or a schizocarp-capsule; fertile stamens 5 (opposite the sepals), alternate stamens reduced to staminodes.Flindersia
Fruit either an indehiscent samara or composed of 1–5 dehiscent cocci; fertile stamens 10.
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30Leaves alternate; fruit an indehiscent samara, surrounded by a broad, flat, membranous wing when mature.Pentaceras
Leaves opposite; fruit dehiscent; mature cocci not surrounded by a membranous wing.
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31Ovules 2 per carpel; buds naked; each carpel with a prominent upper abaxial gland.Acradenia
Ovules 4–6 per carpel; buds with scales completely enclosing the leaf and floral primordia; carpel glands absent.
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