Description: Shrubs or small to large trees, with simple hairs, unarmed.
Leaves opposite, 1-foliolate or palmately 3-foliolate; leaflets with margins entire.
Inflorescences axillary, cymose or paniculate [or reduced to 1 flower]. Flowers bisexual, 4-merous. Sepals 4, free or basally fused. Petals 4, valvate, free, narrow-triangular to sublanceolate, becoming reflexed, persistent or not persistent in fruit. Stamens 8, free, divergent. Ovary 4-locular or rarely to 8-locular, with or without fissures between the locules, ± pyramidal; styles fused, arising terminally from ovary; stigma scarcely differentiated from style; ovules 2 in each loculus.
Fruit a 4-loculate (or rarely 4- to 8-loculate) drupe, with or without septicidal fissures, or rarely comprised of 4 ascending, beaked follicle-like carpels; epicarp drying semifleshy or rarely papery, or the mesocarp spongy-crustaceous to woody; seeds dull to shiny, black.
Distribution and occurrence: World: 44 spp., India, S Asia, Malesia & Pac.Is. Aust.: 19 spp. (16 spp. endemic), Qld, N.S.W., Vic.
Text by P.G. Richards & G.J Harden
| ||Key to the species|| |
|1||Leaves mostly 3-foliolate (rarely occasional leaves 1-foliolate).||2|
|2||Leaflets usually 8–20 cm long, glabrous or finely hairy, with 10–20 pairs of main lateral veins; petioles without raised corky bands.||3|
|Leaflets mostly 4–8.5 cm long, glabrous, with 7–11 pairs of main lateral veins ; petioles of older leaves often encircled with raised corky bands.|
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|3||Leaflets glabrous, with 16–20 pairs of main lateral veins; fruit comprised of 4 ascending, beaked carpels, connate only at base.||Acronychia octandra|
|Leaflets hairy on lower surface, at least on midrib and veins, with 10–13 pairs of main lateral veins; fruit drupaceous, comprised of 4 erect, ± fused carpels, not beaked.|
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|4||Stems, lower surface of leaves and inflorescences distinctly hairy.||Acronychia pubescens|
|Stems, lower surface of leaves and inflorescences ± glabrous or rarely obscurely hairy.|
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|5||Oil dots absent or ± invisible in leaves, sometimes translucent blotches or streaks present; fruit yellow to yellow-orange.||Acronychia imperforata|
|Oil dots present in leaves, translucent and conspicuous; fruit white, creamy white or mauve.|
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|6||Petioles of young leaves at least finely hairy on upper surface; larger inflorescences <2 cm long; lower surface of leaves sometimes very sparsely and minutely hairy.||Acronychia pauciflora|
|Petioles of young leaves glabrous; larger inflorescences >2 cm long; lower surface of leaves glabrous.|
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|7||Petioles 1.2–2.2 mm wide; fruit 4–8-carpellate and 4–8-lobed.||8|
|Most petioles <1.2 mm wide; fruit 4-carpellate and 4-lobed.|
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|8||Oil dots in leaves moderately numerous to sparse, faintly to moderately translucent; fruit 4-lobed, glabrous, shallowly apically fissured to less than halfway; leaves strongly spicy-aromatic when crushed.||Acronychia littoralis|
|Oil dots in leaves numerous and usually dense, strongly translucent;fruit 4–8-lobed (always some 5–8-lobed fruit present), with apical tuft of hairs, deeply fissured to more than halfway between carpels when dry, sometimes carpels fully separating in fruit; leaves not strongly aromatic when crushed.|
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|9||Fruit mauve, drying to reddish black; leaves glossy on both surfaces.||Acronychia laevis|
|Fruit white to greenish white or cream-coloured; leaves not glossy or glossy on upper surface only.|
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|10||Petals 9–13 mm long; leaves ± elliptic, with 10–13 pairs of main lateral veins; fruit ± ovoid, 9–15 mm diam., sharply and deeply 4-angled when dry, glabrous.||Acronychia baeuerlenii|
|Petals 5–7 mm long; leaves ± obovate, with 5–11 pairs of main lateral veins; fruit globose to depressed-globose, 8–12 mm diam., shallowly 4-lobed when dry, with apical tuft of hairs.|
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