Synonyms: Dryandra R.Br. APNI*
Description: Shrubs or trees with branchlets and young leaves hairy.
Leaves usually alternate, sometimes whorled, simple, margins variously toothed to entire, scleromorphic, surfaces discolorous with upper surface mostly glabrescent, lower surface variously hairy and often paler; ± petiolate.
Conflorescences usually terminal on branchlets 1–4 years old and often with a whorl of lateral branchlets below, cylindrical to ovoid, (or ± globose in some W.A. species), dense, many-flowered, spike-like; rachis woody, elongated. Flowers usually zygomorphic, in sessile pairs. Perianth tubular in bud; tepals mostly splitting at anthesis. Anthers sessile in concave tips of tepals. Hypogynous glands 4. Ovary sessile, glabrous or hairy; ovules 2; style long, often wiry, straight to curved or hooked, pollen presenter usually erect.
Fruit a woody follicle, opening in 2 hard woody valves; seeds 2, winged, with a variously thickened plate between them (separator); few to many follicles transversely orientated on a ± cylindrical, woody infructescence.
Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 76 spp., Aust., N.G. & Aru Is. Aust.: 76 spp. (75 spp. endemic), all States.
Refs Conran & Clifford (1987), George (1981, 1999a), Thiele & Ladiges (1994).
The follicles of many species remain closed until burnt, while in other species some, or many, follicles open spontaneously.
Key based on George (1981).
Text by G.J. Harden
Taxa not yet included in identification key
Banksia robur x oblongifolia,
| ||Key to the species|| |
|1||Styles straight or gently curved after anthesis||2|
|Styles after anthesis hooked just below apex||12|
|2||Leaves in regular whorls of 3–5 or in separated whorl-like clusters||3|
|Leaves alternate, scattered along stems|
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|3||Leaves mostly entire on adult plants, rarely irregularly toothed; mature plants arborescent||Banksia integrifolia|
|Leaves mostly regularly toothed; mature plants usually openly branched or multi-stemmed shrubs|
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|4||Perianth 20–25 mm long; common bracts with a tuft of long brownish hairs at apex||Banksia penicillata|
|Perianth 16–20 mm long; common bracts with very short whitish hairs at apex|
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|5||Leaves less than 1 cm wide and 2–6 cm long; leaves usually entire on adult plants, sometimes coarsely and irregularly toothed||6|
|Leaves more than 1 cm wide, and more than 4 cm long, usually regularly toothed|
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|6||Apices of leaves not pungent-pointed, more or less truncate; secondary veins generally obscure on lower surface; perianth persistent in fruit||Banksia marginata|
|Apices of leaves pungent-pointed, more or less acute; secondary veins prominent on lower surface; perianth not persistent in fruit|
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|7||Leaves 1–4 cm wide, margins more or less recurved to flat||8|
|Leaves more than 4 cm wide, margins more or less flat|
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|8||Perianth 16–25 mm long; leaves 4–10 cm long, forks between teeth U-shaped||9|
|Perianth 35–45 mm long; leaves mostly 8–20 cm long, forks between teeth V-shaped|
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|9||Perianth 20–25 mm long||10|
|Perianth 16–20 mm long|
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|10||Branchlets hirsute becoming glabrous within a year; common bracts with a tuft of long brownish hairs at apex; perianth pubescent||Banksia penicillata|
|Branchlets remaining closely tomentose; common bracts without a tuft of long hairs at apex; perianth shortly hirsute|
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|11||Leaves usually 2–4 cm wide; gynoecium usually 5–6 cm long, pollen presenter fusiform, 2–3 mm long||Banksia serrata|
|Leaves mostly 1–2 cm wide; gynoecium 3.5–4.5 cm long, pollen presenter conical, c. 1 mm long|
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|12||Leaves mostly more than 3 cm long, scattered||13|
|Leaves usually less than 2 cm long, crowded|
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|13||Leaves 1–2 mm wide; margins revolute so as lower surface is mainly concealed||Banksia spinulosa|
|Leaves more than 2 mm wide, leaves flat or revolute; lower surface of leaves with indumentum of white, grey or brown|
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|14||Leaf margin toothed for most of the leaf length||Banksia collina|
|Leaves mostly entire except for a few teeth near the apex|
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|15||Flowers orange or yellow; circumference of infrutescence 85–120 mm; lignotuber present;usually multistemmed shrub||Banksia neoanglica|
|Flowers pink; circumference of infrutescence 113–125 mm; lignotuber absent; usually single-stemmed shrub|
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