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Genus Casuarina Family Casuarinaceae

Description: Trees, dioecious (except for C. equisetifolia). Bark fissured or scaly, grey-brown to black.

Teeth 6–20 per whorl.

Cones borne on short peduncle, white- or rusty-pubescent at least when immature, often becoming glabrous with age; bracteoles extending well beyond the cone body, never greatly thickened and always lacking a dorsal protuberance. Body of mature samara pale yellow-brown or greyish, dull, glabrous.

Photo T.M. Tame

Photo T.M. Tame

Photo T.M. Tame

Other photo
Photo T.M. Tame

Distribution and occurrence: World: 17 species, range more or less as for family. Australia: 6 species, all mainland States.

Not usually found on soils greatly deficient in nutrients (cf. Allocasuarina). See notes under family description about the differences between fresh and dried material, especially when using the key.

Text by K. L. Wilson & L. A. S. Johnson (1990); edited KL Wilson (Feb 2014, Feb 2017)
Taxon concept:

 Key to the species 
1Ridges narrow, prominently angular, occasionally flat in Casuarina equisetifolia but then densely hairy on ridges as well as in furrows; teeth 6–10, withering or not withering2
Ridges wide, flat or slightly rounded-convex or with a median groove; teeth 8–20, mostly withering3
2Branchlets and cones more or less densely and obviously hairy; teeth 6–8, not withering; cone body 10–20 mm long, 10–13 mm diam., with acute bracteoles; samara 6–8 mm longCasuarina equisetifolia
Branchlets and cones sparsely and minutely hairy; teeth 8–10, withering; cone body 7–14 mm long, 4–6 mm diam., with broad-acute bracteoles; samara 3–4 mm long
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Casuarina cunninghamiana
3Teeth 12–20; ridges smooth, flat or slightly rounded-convex; cones 7–10 mm diam. with thin, broad-acute bracteoles 2.0–2.5 mm wide and with only 1 obvious striation; samara 3.5–5.0 mm long4
Teeth 8–13; ridges minutely roughened, flat or with a median yellowish groove (often masked by wax); cone body 10–16 mm diam. with thick acute bracteoles 3.5–4.0 mm wide and with several obvious striations; samara 5.5–10.5 mm long
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4Teeth on young permanent shoots long-recurvedCasuarina glauca
Teeth on young permanent shoots appressed or slightly spreading
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Casuarina obesa
5Teeth erect, appressed, 8–12, 0.5–0.7 mm long; articles 0.6–0.9 mm diam., somewhat waxy, occasionally sparsely hairy; teeth on new shoots erect to somewhat spreadingCasuarina cristata
Teeth spreading to recurved, 9–13, 0.8–0.9 mm long; articles 1.0–1.8 mm diam., strongly waxy, densely and very shortly hairy; teeth on new shoots spreading
                       Back to 3
Casuarina pauper

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