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Genus Celtis Family Cannabaceae

Description: Shrubs or trees, evergreen or deciduous; monoecious or polygamous.

Leaves entire or regularly toothed, 3–5-veined from near base.

Inflorescences axillary on new shoots, racemes or panicles. Flowers unisexual and/or bisexual, axillary, the male flowers clustered, female and bisexual flowers solitary or 2 or 3 together. Perianth segments 4–6.

Fruit a drupe.

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 67 species, tropical & temperate areas. Australia: c.10 species: W.A., Christmas Is., N.T., Qld. (native and naturalised), N.S.W., L.H.I., A.C.T. (naturalised), Vic. (doubtfully naturalised).

*C. sinensis Pers., native of Asia, is naturalized in southern Qld, but no records have been substantiated for N.S.W.

Text by G. J. Harden
Taxon concept: Distribution and occurrence: Kew Plants of the World Online; Australian Plant Census [both accessed 9 May 2023].

 Key to the species 
1Leaves entire, elliptic to lanceolate; inflorescences many-flowered2
Leaves toothed, lanceolate to broad-ovate; inflorescence 1–few-flowered3
2Leaves chartaceous; apex narrowly acute to acuminate; N.T., Qld., N.S.W., Norfolk Island, also Melanesia, Polynesia and MalesiaCeltis paniculata
Leaves leathery; apex rounded; Lord Howe Island, New caledonia
                       Back to 1
Celtis conferta
3Upper surface of leaves distinctly rough and scabrous; lower surface pubescent to glabrous; mature fruit brown to black or purple to black4
Upper surface of leaves ± smooth and glabrous; lower surface with hairs usually confined to midvein; mature fruit orange
                       Back to 1
Celtis sinensis
4Lower surface of leaves pale, almost white, and softly hairy, 1–4 cm wide; bark smoothCeltis australis
Lower surface of leaves paler green than upper surface; usually mostly glabrous, 3–7 cm wide; bark furrowed
                       Back to 3
Celtis occidentalis

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