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Genus Chiloglottis Family Orchidaceae

Synonyms: Myrmechila D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem. APNI*
Simpliglottis Szlach. APNI*

Description: Terrestrial herbs, sympodial; roots filamentous; tuberoids paired and often also produced at apex of stolons.

Leaves basal, 2 per shoot, convolute, opposite, petiolate or sessile.

Inflorescence racemose, 1-flowered, terminal; flowers resupinate. Dorsal sepal free, broader than and about as long as, to slightly longer than lateral sepals. Lateral sepals free. Lateral petals free, slightly narrower and longer to shorter than dorsal sepal. Labellum free, attached to column foot by a short claw; lamina not lobed, with several to many calli that often form a central, insectiform aggregation. Column lacking free filament and style; column wings fused to column, linear or expansive in upper half, forming teeth at the apex that sometimes project beyond the anther. Column foot vestigial. Anther erect, persistent. Pollinia 4, soft and mealy. Stigma entire. Rostellum obscure, ventral.

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 18 species, Australia & New Zealand. Australia: 18 species (15 species endemic), Qld, N.S.W., Vic., Tas., S.A.

We have chosen not to recognise Simpliglottis, segregated from Chiloglottis by Szlachetko (2001, Polish Botanical Journal 46: 11-26) or Myrmechila, segregated from Chiloglottis by Jones & Clements (2005, Orchadian 15: 36-37). Chiloglottis as traditionally circumscribed (i.e. as broadly circumscribed here) is a well supported monophyletic group (Clements et al. 2002, Lindleyana 17: 135-171; Mant et al. 2002, Evolution 56: 888-898) that requires no nomenclatural change at generic level.

Text by D. L. Jones
Taxon concept: D.L. Jones (1993, Flora of New South Wales vol. 4)

Taxa not yet included in identification key
Chiloglottis sphaerula

 Key to the species 
1Flowers broad; petals divergent, usually curved upwards in apical third2
Flowers narrow; petals reflexed strongly against the ovary7
2Labellum more or less triangularChiloglottis cornuta
Labellum broad-ovate to cordate rarely elliptic
                       Back to 1
3Labellum ellipticChiloglottis x pescottiana
Labellum broad-ovate to cordate
                       Back to 2
4Petals linear to lanceolate, widely divergent5
Petals broad-lanceolate, held more or less erect close to the labellum
                       Back to 3
5Flower green to yellowish green, basal calli not forming a prominent flange with labellum marginChiloglottis chlorantha
Flower reddish to purplish brown, basal calli forming a prominent flange with labellum margin
                       Back to 4
Chiloglottis pluricallata
6Flower c. 35 mm across, labellum with 1–6 calliChiloglottis valida
Flower c. 25 mm across, labellum with 20–24 calli
                       Back to 4
Chiloglottis turfosa
7Osmophores of lateral sepals less than 1 mm long, if c. 2 mm then swollen and club-like; flowers spring and summer8
Osmophores of lateral sepals more than 2 mm long, not swollen and club-like; flowers summer, autumn and winter
                       Back to 1
8Callus confined to basal part of labellum9
Callus extending to labellum apex
                       Back to 7
9Labellum spade-shaped, sepalline osmophores swollen and blackishChiloglottis palachila
Labellum diamond-shaped, sepalline osmophores not swollen, reddish
                       Back to 8
Chiloglottis trapeziformis
10Labellum lamina more or less horizontal, column broadly wingedChiloglottis platyptera
Labellum lamina obliquely erect to erect, column narrowly winged
                       Back to 8
Chiloglottis formicifera
11Flower, including callus, wholly green, main gland shaped like a duck's headChiloglottis anaticeps
Flower greenish brown to pinkish brown, callus darker, main gland not shaped like a duck's head
                       Back to 7
12Osmophores of lateral sepals yellowish13
Osmophores of lateral sepals reddish
                       Back to 11
13Lateral sepals more or less parallel, osmophores 7–10 mm longChiloglottis diphylla
Lateral sepals divergent, osmophores 2–3 mm long
                       Back to 12
Chiloglottis sylvestris
14Labellum margins recurvedChiloglottis diphylla
Labellum margins flat
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15Callus occupying most of the upper surface of the labellum, labellum apex mucronate to caudate16
Callus occupying proximal half to two-thirds of labellum, labellum apex rounded
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16Lateral sepals deflexed, osmophores 3–7 mm long, labellum apex caudateChiloglottis trilabra
Lateral sepals recurved below the labellum, osmophores 1.5–3.5 mm long, labellum apex mucronate
                       Back to 15
Chiloglottis reflexa
17Osmophores of lateral sepals 2–3 mm longChiloglottis sylvestris
Osmophores of lateral sepals 3–7 mm long
                       Back to 15
18Labellum diamond-shaped, 5–6.5 mm wide, clavate glands absent or few on callusChiloglottis seminuda
Labellum broad-spathulate, 7–8.5 mm wide, clavate glands abundant on callus
                       Back to 17
Chiloglottis sphyrnoides

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