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Genus Hakea Family Proteaceae

Description: Shrubs or small trees.

Leaves flat with similar surfaces or terete and then entire or divided into segments or rarely trigonous.

Conflorescences axillary, raceme-like with paired flowers or in several- to many-flowered clusters and then flowers not regularly or obviously paired. Flowers zygomorphic. Perianth tube revolute and curved under the limb; tepals splitting to base or remaining fused and splitting on upper side only. Anthers 4, sessile. Hypogynous glands fused, horseshoe-shaped, obovoid, or rarely disc-shaped, rarely absent. Ovary shortly stipitate, glabrous; style longer than the perianth, curved and protruding from a slit in the perianth before being released; pollen presenter an oblique or lateral disc or an erect cone.

Follicle woody, surface smooth, wrinkled, blistered or warty, sometimes prominently beaked (apical portion of the fruit beyond the main swollen body of the fruit), often with apical horns (pair of hard points just behind fruit apex, often broken off in mature fruit); secondary thickening formed by the cambium, the fruit opening in 2 valves; seeds 2, compressed, testa expanded into a wing, usually at one end; seeds generally placed near the upper suture of the fruit and mostly borne in ± same direction as stalk of fruit.

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 150 spp., endemic Aust., all States.

The fruit of Hakea remains closed on the plants for many years, with opening only occurring when the branches which support them die. During a fire seeds are protected by the woodiness of the fruit but the fruit opens soon after the death of the plant or branch. Thus fire may release a very large bank of seeds into the burnt area with most seeds germinating within a month. Some species also develop an underground swelling, commonly referred to as a lignotuber (e.g. H. bakeriana, H. laevipes, H. decurrens, sometimes in H. teretifolia and probably in H. eriantha), that enables the plant to resprout from the base following disturbance, such as fire. Those species which do not possess the lignotuber are killed by an intense fire. Because of these characteristics many Hakea species are favoured by fire.

Some species grown overseas have become naturalized, probably because of their adaptability to fire, as well as the lack of predators. These include H. decurrens subsp. physocarpa in Spain and Portugal, and H. sericea in New Zealand and South Africa.

Species of Hakea and Grevillea may be very similar, but they can be separated by the woody persistent fruit of Hakea versus the non-woody and non-persistent fruit of Grevillea. Other indicators are the upper and lower leaf surfaces being similar in Hakea but different in Grevillea and the ovary and style in Hakea are always glabrous and so any hairiness on either would indicate a Grevillea species.

Text by R.M. Barker, G.J. Harden, L. Haegi & W.R. Barker
Taxon concept:

 Key to the species 
1At least some leaves on plant divided.2
Leaves not divided.6
2Flowering and fruiting rachis <2 cm long; follicles usually solitary; perianth glabrous; shrubs, lacking thick corky bark; flowers reddish purple.Hakea purpurea
Flowering and fruiting rachis >2 cm long; follicles many per rachis; trees or shrubs with corky bark; flowers yellowish to whitish.
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3Perianth in mature bud 2–5 mm long; gynoecium 8.5–11 mm long, style upright, pollen presenter a ± erect cone; follicles usually pubescent.Hakea ednieana
Perianth in mature bud >5 mm long; gynoecium >18 mm long, style recurved, at least initially, pollen presenter an oblique disc; follicles glabrous.
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4Leaf segments not divergent, flexible, usually 1–4, some undivided leaves often present.Hakea ivoryi
Leaf segments divergent, ± rigid, 2–15.
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5Shrub, never with fruit; branchlets shiny pubescent; raceme 5–8 cm long; leaf segments 2–7; known only from Keepit Dam near Gunnedah.Hakea pulvinifera
Shrub or tree, forming fruits; branchlets ash-white pubescent; raceme 5–16 cm long; leaf segments 4–15; extreme NW corner of State.
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Hakea eyreana
6Leaves flat (including trigonous in cross section).7
Leaves terete.
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7Pollen presenter conical; follicles not horned and leaves with obvious venation; perianth glabrous.8
Pollen presenter oblique or lateral; follicles horned or not; leaf venation obvious or obscure; perianth pubescent or glabrous.
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8Leaves 20–40 cm long.Hakea dohertyi
Leaves <20 cm long.
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9Leaves 4.5–30 mm wide, longitudinal veins usually 3–5; widespread in forest, chiefly on the coast and ranges, west to near Texas.10
Leaves 1.5–4 mm wide; longitudinal veins 1–3; coastal heaths south from Eden.
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Hakea ulicina
10Plants without a lignotuber, non-sprouting, killed by fire; branchlets initially appressed-pubescent with rust-brown hairs, pale, glabrescent or rarely sparsely hairy at flowering time.Hakea dactyloides
Plants lignotuberous, resprouting after fire; branchlets with persistent dark brown hairs, tomentose or pubescent.
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Hakea laevipes
11Pedicel and perianth pubescent; pollen presenter lateral below style apex; follicles not horned.Hakea eriantha
Pedicel and perianth glabrous; pollen presenter an oblique disc; follicles horned or not horned.
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12Venation on leaves obvious; flowers yellowish green, >60, rachis 4–7 cm long.Hakea archaeoides
Venation on leaves obscure; flowers white, 4–40 flowers on rachis <2 mm long
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13Leaves all flat, 5–20 mm wide; follicles 10–20 mm wide, covered with large blunt-topped warts.14
Leaves sometimes a mixture of terete and flat, <3.5 mm wide; follicles 6–8 mm wide, ± smooth.
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Hakea microcarpa
14Follicles 13–30 mm wide, covered with blunt-topped warts >1 mm high; gynoecium 6–6.5 mm long; rachises 1 per axil.Hakea salicifolia
Follicles 6–12 mm wide, covered with with raised black blisters, rarely with rounded warts <0.5 mm high; gynoecium 7–10 mm long; rachises often more than 1 per axil.
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Hakea florulenta
15Branchlets and leaves densely villous; follicle with seed borne at right angles to stalk.Hakea gibbosa
Branchlets and leaves pubescent or glabrous, but not villous; follicle with seed in same line as stalk or somewhat oblique.
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16Flowers small, perianth c. 2–2.5 mm long; gynoecium 3.5–4.5 mm long; pedicels pubescent.17
Flowers larger, perianth >2.5 mm long; gynoecium 4–40 mm long; pedicels glabrous or pubescent.
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17Conifer-like tree or shrub, 1–5 m high; follicles 3.5–4.5 cm long.Hakea propinqua
Compact or spreading shrub or small tree 0.5–4.5 m high; follicles 2.5–3.5 cm long.
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18Flowers yellow; perianth 1–2 mm long; at higher altitudes (usually above 800 m) in Blue Mts.Hakea pachyphylla
Flowers white, pink in bud; perianth 2.5–4.5 mm long; coastal regions and adjacent ranges, south from Coffs Harbour.
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Hakea sericea
19Perianth glabrous.20
Perianth pubescent.
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20Pedicels glabrous.21
Pedicels pubescent.
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21Flowers red or pink; follicles 3–7 cm long.22
Flowers white; follicles <3 cm long.
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22Perianth 10–15 mm long; gynoecium c. 40 mm long; follicles 5–7 cm long, 3–4 cm wide, densely and deeply wrinkled; coast and adjacent ranges, from Newcastle to Sydney.Hakea bakeriana
Perianth c. 10 mm long; gynoecium 29–32 mm long; follicles 3–4 cm long, c. 1.5 cm wide smooth or roughened but not densely and deeply wrinkled; hilly sites north of Yetman.
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Hakea purpurea
23Follicles 15–17 mm long, recurving on opening, distinctly horned; seed filling whole valve; flattened leaves sometimes mixed with terete leaves; tablelands and higher altitudes in wet or poorly drained sites.Hakea microcarpa
Follicles c. 25 mm long, not recurving on opening, obscurely or not horned; seed filling only part of valve; leaves all terete; drier western regions.
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Hakea leucoptera
24Leaves grooved below.25
Leaves not grooved below.
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25Leaves not spreading, 1.5–13.5 cm long; rachis woolly tomentose with rust-brown hairs; pedicels silky; seed wing light brown to off-white; confined to the Dorrigo area.Hakea ochroptera
Leaves spreading, 1.3–8 cm long; rachis with mixed white and rust-brown hairs; pedicels villous, tomentose or with appressed hairs; seed wing dark-coloured; widespread species.
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26Gynoecium 9–12 mm long; perianth 4.2–7.2 mm long; pedicels tomentose or appressed pubescent, hairs white and/or rust-brown; branchlets quickly glabrescent or persistently and densely tomentose.Hakea decurrens
Gynoecium 4–7.5 mm long; perianth 2.5–4.7 mm long; pedicels villous, hairs white; branchlets persistently woolly tomentose.
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Hakea sericea
27Follicles with beak long-oblique down one side of follicle only; rachis rust-brown tomentose, 0.6–1 mm long; gynoecium 6.5–8 mm long; NE NSW.Hakea actites
Follicles with beak apical, ± equally represented on both sides of follicle; rachis white tomentose, or if some rust-brown hairs present, the rachis more than 3 mm long; gynoecium 7–12 mm long; in southern and western parts of teh State.
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28Young growth with white appressed hairs; follicles wrinkled or warty; rachis white tomentose, less than 4 mm long.29
Young growth not with shining white pubescence; follicles ± smooth; rachis 6–14 mm long, white tomentose or with appressed white and rust-coloured hairs; drier western regions.
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Hakea leucoptera
29Mature follicles 4.3–5.5 cm long, 3–3.5 cm wide, densely warty; restricted to the Blue Mtns.Hakea constablei
Mature follicles 2.3–2.7 cm long, 1.7–2 cm wide, coarsely wrinkled or blistered; subalpine areas south from the A.C.T.
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Hakea lissosperma
30Conflorescences elongated, rachis 9–25 mm long; follicles usually more than one per conflorescence, smooth; shrub with drooping foliage and corky bark, leaves 2–30 cm long.31
Conflorescence not elongated, rachis 0–3 mm long; follicles usually one per conflorescence, smooth or variously warted; shrubs or trees, leaves not drooping, 1.5–15 cm long.
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31Conflorescences 3–5 cm long; leaves flexible, mostly 11–30 cm long and 0.8–1.4 mm diam.; valve of fruit 10–12 mm wide; confined to the gorges east of Armidale.Hakea fraseri
Conflorescences 5–25 cm long; leaves ± rigid, mostly 15–68 cm long and 0.9–2.5 mm diam.; valves of fruit moslty 13–20 mm wide; confined to the Collarenabri district.
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Hakea lorea
32Mature follicles covered all over with raised warts or blisters.33
Mature follicles ± smooth, not covered with warts or blisters
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33Leaves grooved on lower surface; perianth often with sparser hairs than pedicel.34
Leaves not grooved; perianth with sparser hairs than pedicel, usually quickly glabrescent.
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34Pedicel and perianth with sparse appressed shining white hairs, sparser on perianth; follicles prominently horned, beak 5–8 mm long; south from the Budawang Ra.Hakea macraeana
Pedicel and perianth with moderately densely white raised hairs, sometimes denser on perianth; follicles obscurely horned, beak to 10 mm long; north from Torrington area.
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Hakea macrorrhyncha
35Spreading shrub; follicles 20–30 mm long, 15–20 mm wide; subalpine areas in ranges south from the A.C.T.Hakea lissosperma
Conifer-like tree or shrub; follicles 40–55 mm long, 30–40 mm wide; rocky outcrops in Blue Mts, rare.
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Hakea constablei
36Mucro of leaf erect; follicles narrowly ovoid, 6–8 mm wide, gradually tapering into long beak, encircled by toothed fringe in lower half; coast and tablelands, often in wet or poorly drained sites.Hakea teretifolia
Mucro of leaf bent; follicles ovoid, 15–20 mm wide, with ± rounded apex, lacking a fringe in lower half; drier western regions, from Slopes to plains.
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Hakea tephrosperma

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