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Genus Zieria Family Rutaceae

Description: Shrubs to small trees, glabrous or with simple or stellate hairs, unarmed.

Leaves opposite or rarely appearing whorled, palmately 3-foliolate or rarely 1-foliolate; leaflets with margins entire or glandular-toothed; lateral leaflets usually similar to terminal leaflet but smaller.

Inflorescences axillary, cymose. Flowers bisexual, 4-merous. Calyx basally fused, 4-lobed. Petals 4, valvate or imbricate, free, not persistent in fruit. Stamens 4, free, opposite the sepals, erect, incurved. Disc with 4 distinct and prominent gland-like lobes alternating with the petals. Carpels 4, basally fused, lacking a sterile apex; styles fused, arising terminally from the carpels; stigma capitate; ovules 2 in each carpel.

Fruit of 1–4 cocci; cocci not transversely ridged, with rounded apices; seeds released forcibly from dehiscing cocci, dull, black.



Distribution and occurrence: World: 44 spp., Aust. & N.Cal. Aust.: 43 spp. (endemic), Qld, N.S.W., Vic., Tas., S.A.

A number of species are cultivated as ornamental. This genus is currently under revision.; many of the taxa have manuscript names (ms. after the name) which as yet have not been formally published.

Text by J. A. Armstrong & G.J. Harden
Taxon concept:

Taxa not yet included in identification key
Zieria compacta,    Zieria nubicola

 Key to the species 
1Plants with branchlets prominently ridged due to the presence of ± glabrous leaf decurrencies2
Plants with branchlets not prominently ridged3
2Branchlets with an indumentum of stellate hairs4
Branchlets with an indumentum of simple hairs
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3Branchlets with an indumentum predominantly of simple hairs10
Branchlets with an indumentum of stellate hairs
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4Lower surface of leaflets velvety with very short stellate hairs5
Lower surface of leaflets not velvety, generally glabrous to hirsute
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5Inflorescences generally shorter than the leaves; calyx lobes usually much shorter than petals; staminal filaments hirsute with simple to stellate hairs, particularly towards the apex, swollen and slightly warty towards apexZieria laevigata
Inflorescences generally longer than the leaves; calyx lobes almost equal in length to the petals; staminal filaments glabrous, not noticeably swollen or warty towards the apex
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Zieria laxiflora
6Lower surface of leaflets glabrous and dotted with pellucid oil glands; staminal filaments not prominently dilated towards the base and not warty towards the apex.Zieria prostrata
Lower surface of leaflets hirsute and lacking pellucid oil glands; staminal filaments dilated towards the base and warty at the apex
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Zieria arborescens
7Leaflets ± obovate, 3–6 mm wide, apex rounded to obcordate; upper surface of leaflets glabrous; leaflet margins not recurvedZieria robusta
Leaflets mostly linear to lanceolate or narrow-elliptic, or rarely obovate, 1–3 mm wide, apex mostly acute or sometimes obtuse or rounded; upper surface of leaflets hirsute to ± glabrous; margins usually revolute
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8Leaves with terminal leaflets 9–19 mm longZieria ingramii
Leaves with terminal leaflets 5–8 mm long
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9Leaves sessile, or nearly so; leaflet margins revolute to the midveinZieria aspalathoides
Leaves with petioles at least 1 mm long; leaflet margins not revolute
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Zieria odorifera
10Plants strongly lemon-scented, procumbent, proliferating from rhizomes; branchlets often with tufts of longer hairs at nodes; restricted to Cooma district (ST)Zieria citriodora
Plants sometimes odoriferous but not lemon-scented; not obviously proliferating from rhizomes; branchlets without tufts of hairs at nodes; widespread but not in ST
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11Central leaflets >10 mm long, 2–8 mm wide; branchlets and flower parts lacking raised oil glands; leaflets ± flat or slightly recurved, margins entireZieria pilosa
Central leaflets <10 mm long, 1–3 mm wide; upper surface of leaflets, calyx lobes and ovary mostly warted with raised oil glands; margins of leaflets recurved to revolute, mostly appearing finely toothed or crenate due to the raised glands
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12Petals pale to deep pink; inflorescences mostly 3–7-flowered, mostly exceeding the leaves; central leaflets linear to narrow-lanceolate, margins revolute, apex acuteZieria aspalathoides
Petals white or rarely white with the tips pink; inflorescences mostly 1–3-flowered, shorter than or longer than the leaves; central leaflets mostly oblanceolate to obovate or elliptic, margins recurved to revolute, apex mostly obtuse to rounded or obcordate
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13Cocci pubescent or hirsute14
Cocci ± glabrous or with hairs only on the margins
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14Petals mostly 4–4.5 mm long; inflorescences mostly longer than the leaves, mostly 3-flowered (range 1–7); northern species, west of Armidale (NT, NWS)Zieria odorifera
Petals usually 2–3.5 mm long; inflorescences shorter than the leaves, 1-flowered or 1–3-flowered; central species and northern species east of Armidale (NT, CT, CWS)
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15Central leaflets cuneate, obcordate or ± obovate, 1.3–3.7 mm wide, 3–8.5 mm long; petiole 1.5–3 mm long; inflorescences 1–3-flowered; near Wellington and Bathurst (CT, CWS)Zieria obcordata
Central leaflets narrow-elliptic to oblanceolate, 1–2 mm wide, 3–6.5 mm long; petiole 0.5–1.5 mm long; inflorescences 1-flowered; near Cathedral Rock N.P. (NT)
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Zieria odorifera
16Divaricate shrub to 1 m high; central leaflets cuneate to obovate, 2.5–4 mm long; confined to the Araluen district (SC)Zieria adenophora
Prostrate subshrub to 0.1 m high; central leaflet oblanceolate 4–7 mm long; restricted to gorges SE of Armidale (NT)
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Zieria odorifera
17Plants with prominent warts on stems18
Plants without prominent warts on stems, although pellucid oil glands may be present
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18Lower surface of leaflets velvety with short stellate hairs19
Lower surface of leaflets glabrous to hirsute, but never velvety
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19Upper surface of leaflets ± glabrous20
Upper surface of leaflets pubescent to velvety with very short stellate hairs
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20Upper surface of leaflets not warted but dotted with pellucid oil glands; margins not toothed, slightly recurved to revolute but not to the midveinZieria hindii
Upper surface of leaflets warted; margins ± toothed due to the warts
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21Branchlets hirsute; lower surface of leaflets and calyx lobes with prominent warts; leaflet margins revolute to the midvein; staminal filaments hirsute with stellate hairsZieria granulata
Branchlets velvety; lower surface of leaflets and calyx lobes not warted; leaflet margins flat, not revolute to the midvein; staminal filaments glabrous
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Zieria adenodonta
22Leaflets with upper surface pubescent but not velvety23
Leaflets with upper surface velvety
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23Fruit prominently warted; calyx lobes triangular with apex attenuate, lobes much shorter than petalsZieria parrisiae
Fruit not warted but dotted with pellucid oil glands; calyx lobes narrow-triangular, nearly as long as petals
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Zieria tuberculata
24Upper surface of leaflets and fruit not warted; inflorescences shorter than leavesZieria furfuracea
Upper surface of leaflets and fruit warted; inflorescences longer than leaves
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25Anthers with a small terminal appendage; leaflets 3–5 mm wideZieria formosa
Anthers without an appendage; leaflets 2–3 mm wide
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Zieria buxijugum
26Leaflets usually 2.5–3.5 mm wide; petioles 4–6 mm longZieria floydii
Leaflets mostly 4–7 mm wide; petioles 8–20 mm long
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Zieria smithii
27Lower surface of leaflets pubescent to velvety with very short stellate hairs28
Lower surface of leaflets glabrous to slightly hirsute
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28Apex of leaflets retuse to emarginate29
Apex of leaflets acute to rounded
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29Leaflet margins revolute and secondary venation prominent; inflorescences longer than the leaves; peduncle and calyx lobes pubescentZieria baeuerlenii
Leaflet margins not revolute and venation obscure; inflorescences shorter than the leaves; peduncle and calyx lobes glabrous/glabrescent
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Zieria minutiflora
30Primary bracts persistent on peduncles, leaf-like and ≥7 mm long31
Primary bracts caducous, leaving scars on peduncles, or if persistent <1 mm long
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31Leaves dimorphic, generally 1-foliolate and 3-foliolate leaves equally distributed on the branches, more rarely with 1-foliolate leaves only; venation obscure; staminal filaments and ovary glabrousZieria involucrata
Leaves consistently 3-foliolate; secondary venation obvious; staminal filaments and ovary hirsute or glabrous
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32Leaflets 15–40 mm long, margins ± flat; petiole 3–10 mm long; widespread speciesZieria cytisoides
Leaflets 8–11 mm long, margins recurved to revolute; petiole 1–3.5 mm long; coastal species south from Tathra
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Zieria littoralis
33Upper surface of leaflets glabrous or glabrescent34
Upper surface of leaflets hirsute to densely pubescent
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34Terminal leaflets usually 5–9 cm long; petioles 1.5–3 cm long.; widespread in wet sclerophyll forest and on margins of rainforest on the coast and adjacent rangesZieria arborescens
Terminal leaflets usually 1–3.5 cm long; petioles <1 cm long; widespread in dry sclerophyll forest, often on rocky ridges or outcrops, coast to inland districts
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Zieria fraseri
35Upper surface pubescent with predominantly simple hairs; inflorescences few-flowered, generally <10; filaments not warty at the apexZieria murphyi
Upper surface of leaves with stellate hairs; inflorescences usually many-flowered, generally >10; filaments warty at the apex
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36Secondary venation obscure on lower surface of leaflets; inflorescences generally longer than the leaves; petals glabrous or glabrescent on the upper surfaceZieria covenyi
Secondary venation prominent on lower surface of leaflets; inflorescences generally shorter than the leaves; petals stellate-pubescent on both surfaces
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Zieria arborescens
37Lower surface of leaflets glabrous38
Lower surface of leaflets hirsute
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38Peduncles hirsute with short stellate hairs; calyx lobes tomentose with short stellate hairsZieria southwellii
Peduncles hirsute to tomentose with a mixed indumentum primarily of long simple hairs; calyx lobes hirsute with predominantly long simple hairs
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39Primary bracts large and boat-shaped, >7 mm long and >5 mm wide; calyx lobes with very attenuated apexZieria caducibracteata
Primary bracts small and scale-like, <2.5 mm long and c. 0.5 mm wide; calyx lobes acute, not attenuated
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Zieria lasiocaulis
40Midvein on lower surface of leaflets glabrous to glabrescent; primary bracts boat-shaped and caducous, leaving scars on the peduncle; calyx lobes stellate-tomentoseZieria arborescens
Midvein stellate pubescent; primary bracts scale-like and persistent; calyx lobes hirsute at the base with stellate hairs, glabrescent towards the apex
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Zieria smithii

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