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Genus Allocasuarina Family Casuarinaceae

Description: Shrubs or trees, dioecious or monoecious.

Teeth 4–14(-17) per whorl.

Cones often pubescent at least when young, sessile or pedunculate; bracteoles considerably thickened and [often] divided so that the dorsal portion forms one or more distinct protuberances. Body of mature samara brown to black, shining, glabrous [or hairy].


Habitat
Photo J. Plaza

Habit
Photo J. Plaza

Flower
Photo J. Plaza

Fruit
Photo J. Plaza

Herbarium
Sheet

Distribution and occurrence: World: 62 species, endemic Australia. Australia: all States, chiefly in southern Australia

Usually grows on soils markedly deficient in nutrients.

See notes under family description about the differences between fresh and dried material, especially when using the key.

Text by K. L. Wilson & L. A. S. Johnson (1990); edited KL Wilson (Feb 2017)
Taxon concept:

 Key to the species 
KEY TO MALE SPECIMENS
1Article ridges with a minutely roughened surface; male bracteoles not persistent.2
Ridges smooth; male bracteoles persistent except in A. gymnanthera.4
2Articles coarse, (8 mm long, (0.7 mm diam.; furrows pubescent; teeth 9–13; anthers (1.0 mm long; bark furrowed.3
Articles slender, <8 mm long, <0.7 mm diam.; furrows glabrous; teeth 7–9; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm long; bark very ribbony-fibrous. Male spikes 2–4 cm long; 7–14 whorls per cm.
                       Back to 1
Allocasuarina inophloia
3Teeth erect; ridges flat or slightly rounded-convex; male bracteoles shed individually; branchlets ascending. Male spikes 1.5–4.5 cm long; 5–8 whorls per cm; anthers 1.0–1.3 mm long.Allocasuarina luehmannii
Teeth spreading; ridges rounded-convex (often only slightly so); male bracteoles often falling as a unit with the 1 or 2 male tepals; branchlets drooping. Male spikes 3–12 cm long, 2.5–4 whorls per cm; anthers 1.2–2.5 mm long.
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Allocasuarina verticillata
4Ridges with median groove along whole length.5
Ridges without median groove or groove present only near base of article (in A. brachystachya).
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6
5Anthers 0.7–1.1 mm long; teeth (0.5 mm long, 6–8; articles (5 mm long, (0.7 mm diam.; dioecious or monoecious. Male spikes not moniliform, 1–2.5 cm long; 7–9 whorls per cm.Allocasuarina paludosa
Anthers 0.3–0.6 mm long; teeth (0.5 mm long, 5–7; articles (5 mm long, (0.7 mm diam.; monoecious usually. Male spikes occasionally moniliform, 0.5–1.7 cm long; 9–16 whorls per cm.
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Allocasuarina brachystachya
6Furrows pubescent (pubescent and glabrous furrows sometimes mixed in A. simulans).7
Furrows glabrous.
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13
7Male bracteoles not persistent; male spikes moniliform, 2.5–6 cm long; 3–5 whorls per cm.Allocasuarina gymnanthera
Male bracteoles persistent; male spikes not or occasionally moniliform, other details vary.
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8
8Tree 5–20 m high; bark corky or furrowed.9
Shrub 0.5–3 m high; bark smooth or slightly fissured.
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10
9Teeth 4 or 5. Male spikes 0.5–3 cm long; 7–12 whorls per cm; anthers 0.5–0.6 mm long.Allocasuarina torulosa
Teeth 6–8. Male spikes 0.5–5 cm long; 6–12.5 whorls per cm; anthers 0.4–0.8 mm long.
                       Back to 8
Allocasuarina littoralis
10Ridges flat or slightly rounded-convex; anthers <0.7 mm long; male spikes 0.7–1.7 cm long; >8 male whorls per cm, dioecious or monoecious.11
Ridges angular to strongly rounded-convex; anthers 0.8–1.3 mm long; male spikes 1.5–9 cm long; <7 male whorls per cm; dioecious.
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12
11Dioecious usually; articles 5–6 mm long, often with a waxy bloom; ridges without median groove. Male spikes 5–10 cm long; 16–20 whorls per cm.Allocasuarina nana
Monoecious usually; articles 2–5 mm long, not waxy; ridges often with median groove near base of article. Male spikes occasionally moniliform.
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Allocasuarina brachystachya
12Articles pale yellow-green; ridges rounded-convex to angular; usually parts more slender than in A. distyla. Male spikes 1.5–4 cm long; c. 4 whorls per cm.Allocasuarina simulans
Articles darker blue-green; ridges angular to rounded- convex. Male spikes occasionally moniliform, 1.5–5 (rarely to 9) cm long; 4.5–6.5 whorls per cm.
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Allocasuarina distyla
13Ridges and teeth flat to slightly rounded-convex at least near their apex (may be more convex towards base); articles of same diam. throughout their length; male spikes moniliform usually (but see A. brachystachya).14
Ridges angular to strongly rounded-convex, with rib or convexity continued onto teeth; articles mostly of greater diam. near their apex; male spikes moniliform or not.
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18
14Teeth overlapping.15
Teeth not overlapping.
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17
15Male bracteoles shed; male spikes >2.5 cm long; anthers 0.8–1.4 mm long.Allocasuarina gymnanthera
Male bracteoles persistent; male spikes <2.5 cm long; anthers 0.7–0.9 mm long.
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16
16Articles blue-green, 6–8 mm long; spikes 0.4–1 cm long.Allocasuarina defungens
Articles yellow-green, 5–11 mm long; spikes 0.2–2.5 cm long.
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Allocasuarina glareicola
17Anthers 0.3–0.6 mm long; 9–16 male whorls per cm; articles ≤ 5 mm long. Male spikes occasionally moniliform.Allocasuarina brachystachya
Anthers 0.7–0.8 mm long; c. 5 male whorls per cm; articles ≥ 5 mm long.
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Allocasuarina glareicola
18Teeth withering, recurved to spreading, very broad- triangular; articles 10–25 mm long. Male spikes 1–10 cm long; 3.5–6.5 whorls per cm; anthers 0.7–1.2 mm long.19
Teeth not withering, erect to slightly spreading (if spreading then narrow-triangular); articles 5–12 mm long.
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20
19Articles 0.7–1.5 mm diam., ridges angular to rounded-convex; male spikes rarely moniliform; widespread northern species.Allocasuarina rigida
Articles 0.8–1.0 mm diam., ridges rounded-convex to somewhat angular; male spikes moniliform; rare species confined to Sydney Harbour N.P.
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Allocasuarina portuensis
20Teeth overlapping.21
Teeth not overlapping.
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22
21Teeth very broad-triangular, very convex-sided; articles not waxy. Male spikes 1–2.5 cm long; 7.5–8 whorls per cm; anthers 0.7–0.8 mm long.Allocasuarina rupicola
Teeth broad- to narrow-triangular, ± straight-sided; articles often with a waxy bloom. Male spikes 0.5–5 cm long; 5–10 whorls per cm.
                       Back to 19
Allocasuarina diminuta
22Articles of same diam. throughout their length, not waxy; male spikes moniliform.Allocasuarina glareicola
Articles of slightly greater diam. at apex than towards base, often with a waxy bloom; male spikes usually not moniliform.
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23
23Anthers 0.8–1.2 mm long; teeth narrow-triangular. Male spikes 1–2.5 cm long; c. 6 whorls per cm.Allocasuarina ophiolitica
Anthers 0.5–0.8 mm long; teeth broad- to narrow-triangular. Male spikes 0.5–5 cm long; 5–10 whorls per cm.
                       Back to 21
Allocasuarina diminuta
KEY TO FEMALE SPECIMENS
1Article ridges with a minutely roughened surface; dioecious..2
Ridges smooth or rarely minutely pubescent; dioecious or monoecious.4
2Articles coarse, 8–40 mm long, 0.7–2.0 mm diam.; furrows pubescent; teeth 9–14, usually withering, 0.5–1.2 mm long; branchlets to 40 cm long; cone bracteoles with 1 protuberance; bark fissured.3
Articles slender, 4–7 mm long, 0.5–0.6 mm diam.; furrows glabrous; teeth 7–9, not withering, 0.3–0.5 mm long; branchlets to 21 cm long; cone bracteoles usually with 2 or 3 protuberances; bark very ribbony-fibrous.
                       Back to 1
Allocasuarina inophloia
3Teeth erect, slightly overlapping; ridges flat or slightly rounded-convex; branchlets ascending; cone diam. (8–14 mm) greater than length (5–12 mm); samara 4.5–5.0 mm long, red-brown.Allocasuarina luehmannii
Teeth spreading, not overlapping; ridges rounded-convex (often only slightly so); branchlets drooping; cone length (20–50 mm) greater than diam. (17–30 mm); samara 7.0–12.0 mm long, very dark brown.
                       Back to 2
Allocasuarina verticillata
4Cones warty or tessellated, with cone bracteoles divided into 3–12 small pyramidal bodies.5
Cone bracteoles with a single pyramidal dorsal protuberance (usually shorter than the bracteole body).
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6
5Cones recurved to spreading, on slender peduncle 8–30 mm long; slender tree 5–20 m high with drooping branchlets and corky bark; samara 7.0–10.0 mm long, mid- to dark brown.Allocasuarina torulosa
Cones erect, peduncle 0–3 mm long; low spreading shrub 0.5–2 m high with stiff ascending or spreading branchlets and smooth or finely fissured bark; samara 4.0–6.0 mm long, very dark red-brown to black.
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Allocasuarina nana
6Ridges with median groove along whole length.7
Ridges without median groove or with groove present near base of article (in A. brachystachya).
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8
7Teeth 0.5–0.9 mm long, 6–8; articles 5–14 mm long, 0.7–1.0 mm diam.; cone body 7–13 mm diam.; dioecious or monoecious.Allocasuarina paludosa
Teeth 0.2–0.5 mm long, 5–7; articles 2–5 mm long, 0.4–0.7 mm diam.; cone body 5–8 mm diam.; monoecious usually.
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Allocasuarina brachystachya
8Furrows pubescent (pubescent and glabrous sometimes mixed on same individual in A. simulans).9
Furrows glabrous; branchlets ascending.
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14
Furrows glabrous; branchlets ascending
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15
9Shrubs or rarely small trees, 0.5–5 m high; bark smooth or somewhat fissured towards base of big individuals; branchlets ascending.10
Tree 5–15 m high; bark fissured; branchlets ascending or drooping.
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Allocasuarina littoralis
Tree 5–15 m high; bark fissured; branchlets ascending or drooping
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Allocasuarina littoralis
10Ridges and teeth flat to slightly rounded-convex at least near apex of article (may be more convex towards base).11
Ridges angular to strongly rounded-convex, with ridge or convexity continued onto basal half of teeth
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12
11Cone body 7–14 mm long, 5–8 mm diam.; teeth not overlapping; monoecious usually; samara 2.5–4.0 mm long, dark brown to black.Allocasuarina brachystachya
Cone body 14–40 mm long, 9–12 mm diam.; teeth usually overlapping at least when young; dioecious; samara 4.5–7.0 mm long, very dark brown to black.
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Allocasuarina gymnanthera
12Branchlet articles 3–10 mm long, 0.5–0.9 mm diameter (at mid-length); teeth thin-textured, not overlapping, 0.3–0.7 mm long; cone body 12–25 mm longAllocasuarina thalassoscopica
Branchlet articles (10-)15–22 mm long, 0.8–1.5 mm diameter (at mid-length); teeth thick-textured,slightly overlapping at base at least when young, 0.5–1.2 mm long; cone body (15-)30–50 mm long
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13
13Cones slender, 9–12 mm diam., on slender peduncle c. 2 mm diam.; articles pale yellow-greenAllocasuarina simulans
Cones large, 11–22 mm diam., on stout peduncle 2–4 mm diam.; articles darker blue-green
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Allocasuarina distyla
14Ridges flat to slightly rounded-convex at least near apex of article (may be more convex towards base)16
Ridges angular to strongly rounded-convex, with rib or convexity continued onto teeth
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19
15Cone body 14–40 mm long, 9–12 mm diamAllocasuarina gymnanthera
Cone body 7–14 mm long, 5–8 mm diam
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15
16Teeth overlapping17
Teeth not overlapping
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18
17Mature samaras dark brown; cone body 5–7 mm diamAllocasuarina defungens
Mature samaras mid-brown; cone body 7–8 mm diam
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Allocasuarina glareicola
18Articles 2–5 mm long; mature samaras dark brown to blackAllocasuarina brachystachya
Articles 5–11 mm long; mature samaras mid-brown
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Allocasuarina glareicola
19Teeth withering, recurved to spreading, very broad-triangular20
Teeth not withering, erect to slightly spreading, or if spreading then narrow-triangular
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21
20Articles 0.7–1.0 mm diam., ridges angular to rounded-convex; widespread northern speciesAllocasuarina rigida
Articles 0.8–1.0 mm diam., ridges rounded-convex to somewhat angular; rare species, confined to Sydney Harbour N.P
                       Back to 19
Allocasuarina portuensis
21Teeth overlapping22
Teeth not overlapping
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23
22Teeth very broad-triangular, very convex-sided; articles not waxyAllocasuarina rupicola
Teeth broad- to narrow-triangular, more or less straight-sided; articles often with a waxy bloom
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Allocasuarina diminuta
23Articles of same diameter throughout length, not waxyAllocasuarina glareicola
Articles of slightly greater diameter near their apex, often with a waxy bloom
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24
24Teeth narrow-triangular; mature samaras mid-brown; cones on peduncles 6–15 mm long; teeth 7–9, 0.5–1.3 mm longAllocasuarina ophiolitica
Teeth broad- to narrow-triangular; mature samaras dark brown; cones on peduncles 2–10 mm long; teeth 6–10, 0.3–0.8 mm long
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Allocasuarina diminuta

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