Description: Erect, scabrous semi-parasitic herbs.
Leaves opposite or upper alternate, margins entire or toothed.
Flowers ± sessile, axillary or in interrupted terminal spikes, single in axil of bracts; bracteoles 2, at base of calyx. Calyx spathe-like, compressed, obliquely split down lower edge, 5-toothed or entire at apex. Corolla ± equally 5-lobed, or 2-lipped; tube curved, dilated at top; upper lip 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, fused in pairs, included in tube; anthers with 2 confluent loculi, awned at upper end, 1 loculus smaller and infertile. Stigma usually simple, dilated.
Capsule loculicidal with the septum remaining attached to the 2 valves; seeds many, reticulate.
Distribution and occurrence: World: 6–10 species, eastern Asia, Malesia & Australia. Australia: 1 species (native).
Text by W. R. Barker