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Genus Leucopogon Family Ericaceae
Subfamily Epacridoideae

Description: Shrubs or [small trees]; branches erect to spreading, glabrous to pubescent.

Leaves erect to reflexed, aristate or with a callous tip, usually concolorous; lamina glabrous or pubescent, lower surface striate, margins entire or ciliate to finely toothed; sessile or shortly petiolate.

Flowers in solitary or clustered spikes, each flower subtended by a single bract and 2 bracteoles; peduncles usually pubescent; bracts and bracteoles ovate to circular, glabrous except for ciliolate margins. Sepals similar to bracts. Corolla tube often shorter than lobes, glabrous, or minutely pubescent inside near the throat or with lobe hairs deflexed into tube; lobes valvate in bud, erect to spreading, rarely reflexed in the open flower, white-bearded inside. Stamens inserted at the throat; filaments slender, terete; anthers usually partly enclosed in the tube, with or without a paler sterile tip. Ovary usually 2–5-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; style usually glabrous, stigma lobed; nectary annular or in 5 scales.

Fruit a drupe.


Photo © ANBG

Distribution and occurrence: World: c. 230 species, Australia, Malaysia, Indo-China, New Caledonia, Pacific & New Zealand. Australia: c. 200 species (most species endemic), all States.

Text by J. M. Powell, except for groups with contributors listed
Taxon concept:

Taxa not yet included in identification key
Leucopogon rufus,    Leucopogon trichostylus

 Key to the species 
1Style of flowers shorter or more or less equal to ovary height, never exserted from corolla tube but sometimes obvious at throat; flowers terminal or axillary2
Style of flowers usually much longer than ovary and exserted from corolla tube, rarely more or less equal to ovary and then obvious in throat; flowers always in axillary spikes19
2Flowers in terminal and upper axillary spikes; anthers usually with sterile tip, rarely emarginate3
Flowers axillary; anthers always without sterile tips
                       Back to 1
16
3Plants diffuse, mat-forming or straggling4
Plants erect, slender or robust
                       Back to 2
5
4Leaves broad-ovate, more than 4 mm wide, base auriculate-saggitateLeucopogon amplexicaulis
Leaves usually oblong or elliptic, less than 1.5 mm wide, base tapering
                       Back to 3
Leucopogon pilifer
5Flowering spikes pendent6
Flowering spikes erect
                       Back to 3
7
6Leaves less than 2 mm wide; flowers 6–15 per spike; sepals obtuse; corolla tube shorter than the sepals, less than 1 mm longLeucopogon rodwayi
Leaves more than 2 mm wide, flowers 3–8 per spike; sepals acute; corolla tube longer than sepals, more than 2 mm long
                       Back to 5
Leucopogon gelidus
7Spikes usually less than 12 mm long, clustered at end of branches, less than 10 flowers per spike8
Spikes usually more than 12 mm long, not clustered, more than 10 flowers per spike
                       Back to 5
14
8Leaves distinctly petiolate9
Leaves tapering at base, with indistinct petiolar area
                       Back to 7
11
9Shrubs more than 1 m high; leaves horizontal; flowers bisexual; corolla tube longer than the sepalsLeucopogon maccraei
Shrubs usually less than 0.6 m high; leaves mainly erect or more or less erect; flowers mainly unisexual; corolla tube shorter than or equal to the sepals
                       Back to 8
10
10Leaves with margins often recurved; sepals 1.8–2.6 mm long; corolla tube equal to the sepals, pilose inside upper half; lobes shorter than the tube, pilose to pubescentLeucopogon hookeri
Leaves with margins usually flat; sepals 1.5–1.9 mm long; corolla tube shorter than the sepals, glabrous; lobes usually longer than or equal to the tube, glabrous
                       Back to 9
Leucopogon montanus
11Leaves concaveLeucopogon virgatus
Leaves convex or flat
                       Back to 8
12
12Leaves less than 8 mm long, callous tipped; bracteoles and sepals more or less acuminate; corolla tube shorter than the sepalsLeucopogon microphyllus
Leaves more than 8 mm long, finely mucronate; bracteoles and sepals broad-acute or obtuse; corolla tube longer than or equal to the sepals
                       Back to 11
13
13Leaves flat, concolorous; flowers with bracteoles less than 1.5 mm long, sepals less than 2.5 mm long; fruit obovoid, c. 3 mm diamLeucopogon melaleucoides
Leaves convex, discolorous; flowers with bracteoles more than 1.5 mm long, sepals more than 2.5 mm long; fruit depressed-globose, 4–5.5 mm diam
                       Back to 12
Leucopogon species B
14Slender shrubs, usually less than 1 m high; leaves usually convex, variable in shape ovate to oblong to elliptic, to 13 mm long, 2.5 mm wideLeucopogon collinus
Small trees or robust shrubs more than 1 m high; leaves more or less flat, elliptic, ovate or obovate, often more than 13 mm long, more than 2.5 mm wide
                       Back to 7
15
15Leaves usually obovate, 11–29 mm long, 2.5–7.5 mm wide; flowers crowded in dense clusters of spikes; ovary 4- or 5-locular; fruit white, 4.3–5 mm longLeucopogon parviflorus
Leaves usually elliptic or narrow-ovate, 1.3–5.5 mm wide; flowers evenly spaced in open spikes; ovary 2- or 3-locular; fruit red, 2.1–3.3 mm long
                       Back to 14
Leucopogon lanceolatus
16Leaves mostly convex, finely scabrous to bristly17
Leaves more or less flat or concave, glabrous
                       Back to 2
18
17Inflorescences with 1–3 flowers plus rudiment; flowers small, bracteoles less than 1.5 mm long, sepals less than 2.5 mm long, acute, outer surface sparsely bristlyLeucopogon attenuatus
Inflorescences with solitary flowers plus rudiment; flowers larger, bracteoles more than 2 mm long, sepals more than 3 mm long, acuminate, outer surface villous
                       Back to 16
Leucopogon confertus
18Leaves always erect and often upwardly appressed near end of branches, 4–9.5 mm long, concave and somewhat twisted when dry; flowers inconspicuous; sepals 1.5–2 mm long; corolla tube equal to or just longer than the sepalsLeucopogon appressus
Leaves often suberect, not appressed, 8.5–12 mm long, more or less flat, not twisted when dry; flowers conspicuous; sepals 2.3–3 mm long; corolla tube much shorter than the sepals
                       Back to 16
Leucopogon leptospermoides
19Leaves with pungent tip more than 0.5 mm long20
Leaves with callus tip or short mucro less than 0.5 mm long
                       Back to 1
29
20Leaves usually convex, the margin recurved to revolute21
Leaves flat or concave, margins not recurved
                       Back to 19
26
21Corolla tube well exceeding sepals22
Corolla tube equal or shorter than sepals
                       Back to 20
23
22Flowers pendent; corolla tube 2.6–4.8 mm longLeucopogon fletcheri
Flowers erect; corolla tube 5.5–8 mm long
                       Back to 21
Leucopogon juniperinus
23Flowers spreading to pendent on recurved peduncles more than 2.5 mm long24
Flowers erect or spreading, sessile or on peduncles less than 2 mm long
                       Back to 21
25
24Bracts, bracteoles and sepals sparsely bristly; sepals more than 4 mm long; corolla tube c. 3.5 mm long, lobes 4–5 mm long, villous outsideLeucopogon exolasius
Bracts, bracteoles and sepals glabrous; sepals less than 4 mm long; corolla 2–3 mm long, lobes 2.5–4 mm long, glabrous outside
                       Back to 23
Leucopogon setiger
25Leaves usually spreading; flowers 3–8, rarely 11 per spikeLeucopogon ericoides
Leaves erect, often upwardly appressed to stem; flowers 1–3 per spike
                       Back to 23
Leucopogon recurvisepalus
26Leaves flat, elliptic or oblong27
Leaves slightly concave, often obovate
                       Back to 20
28
27Leaves erect or more or less erect, elliptic; flowers inconspicuous, hidden amongst leaves; corolla tube less than 1.5 mm longLeucopogon esquamatus
Leaves usually horizontally spreading, oblong; flowers conspicuous, often pendent; corolla tube more than 2.5 mm long
                       Back to 26
Leucopogon biflorus
28Erect to spreading shrub; leaves broad-ovate to obovate; corolla tube 5–8 mm long; fruit enclosed in sepalsLeucopogon neoanglicus
Low, often prostrate shrub, leaves narrow-oblong to obovate; corolla tube 3.3–5 mm long; fruit well exceeding sepals
                       Back to 26
Leucopogon fraseri
29Leaves lanceolateLeucopogon deformis
Leaves obovate
                       Back to 19
30
30Leaves 12–21 mm long, 3–4 mm wide; flowers 4–10 per spike; corolla tube longer than the sepalsLeucopogon muticus
Leaves 6–11 mm long, 1–2.5 mm wide; flowers 1 or 2 per spike; corolla tube shorter than the sepals
                       Back to 29
Leucopogon margarodes

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