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Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn.
Family Fabaceae
Subfamily Mimosoideae
Common name: mimosa bush, cassie, cassie flower, Farnese wattle, thorny acacia, yellow mimosa, briar bush, dead finish, downs mimosa, false mesquite, mimosa wattle, needle bush, perfumed wattle, prickly mimosa bush, sponge flower

Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. APNI*

Synonyms: Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. APNI*
Acacia lenticellata F.Muell. APNI*
Acacia farnesiana var. lenticellata (F.Muell.) F.M.Bailey APNI*
Mimosa farnesiana L. APNI*
Mimosa suaveolens Salisb., nom. illeg. APNI*

Description: Spreading shrub mostly 1.5–4 m high; bark smooth or finely fissured, grey-brown; branchlets ± zigzagged, often hairy towards apex, glabrous with age, with prominent lenticels.

Leaves with petiole 0.2–2 cm long, hairy especially above, with a circular to elongated gland; rachis 0.3–5.5 cm long, hairy especially above, occasionally with a jugary gland at apex, interjugary glands absent; pinnae 1–7 pairs, c. 1–4 cm long, hairy especially above; pinnules 5–23 pairs, mostly narrow-oblong, 3–10 mm long, 0.5–2 mm wide, with minute hairs on margin near base (sometimes towards apex) or glabrous, midvein and lateral veins more visible and slightly raised beneath; stipules spinescent, usually 5–25 mm long.

Heads globose, 33–95-flowered, bright yellow or orange-yellow, 1–3 or more in axil of leaves; peduncles mostly 3–30 mm long, hairy.

Pods cigar-like, straight to strongly curved, ± terete, turgid, 1.5–8.5 cm long, 8–17 mm wide, dark brown to blackish, glabrous; seeds transverse or oblique, separated by pith.


Illustration
R.A. Griffiths

Habit
Photo T.M. Tame

Flower
Photo T.M. Tame

Other photo
Photo J. & P. Edwards

Herbarium
Sheet

Flowering: irregularly throughout year, usually June–September

Distribution and occurrence: north from Jerilderie. New World origin; widespread through the tropics and subtropics of central America (where native), Africa and Asia; often being naturalised.

Grows in open woodland, shrubland and grassland, in alluvial clay soils and sandy loams, on open plains and near watercourses.
NSW subdivisions: NC, ?CC, NWS, CWS, SWS, NWP, SWP, NFWP
Other Australian states: Qld W.A. S.A. N.T.
AVH map***

Plants of this taxon in Australia are probably all referable to var. farnesiana. Probably arrived in Australia (via SE Asia) prior to European settlement (has moved southwards), which affects its classification as 'native'/'indigenous' or 'introduced'/'alien' by land management authorities. The roasted pods have been eaten by Aboriginal cultures. The foliage and young, green pods are palatable to cattle and sheep. A potential weed of grasslands. Cultivated in Mediterranean countries for its fragrant flowers to make perfumes.

Text by P.G. Kodela (April 2006; last edit Dec 2012)
Taxon concept: P.G. Kodela & Peter G. Wilson, Telopea 11(2): 233-244 (2006).


APNI* Provides a link to the Australian Plant Name Index (hosted by the Australian National Botanic Gardens) for comprehensive bibliographic data
***The AVH map option provides a detailed interactive Australia wide distribution map drawn from collections held by all major Australian herbaria participating in the Australian Virtual Herbarium project.
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